2019年10月27日 星期日

Carlsberg unveils prototype paper-pack beer


 Recently CNN.co.jp reported the following:
カールスバーグ、ビール用紙パックの試作品をお披露目
2019.10.11 Fri posted at 12:30 JST

カールスバーグが木質繊維を使ったリサイクル可能なビール容器を試作/Carlsberg

ニューヨーク(CNN Business) デンマークのビール大手カールスバーグは10日、紙パック入りビールを売り出すという目標に向けて、木質繊維を使ったリサイクル可能なビール容器の試作品を発表した。

2種類の試作品のうち1つでは、リサイクルされたPETプラスチックの薄膜をかぶせてビールがしみ出すのを防いでいる。もう1つはバイオ素材を使って表面処理を施した。

新しい容器の開発には、環境への影響を抑え、消費者に新しい選択肢を提示する狙いがある。

繊維製のボトルは持続的な調達が可能なことからアルミやガラスに比べて環境に優しく、生産工程での影響も非常に小さいと同社は説明している。

カールスバーグは2015年から新しい容器の開発に着手しているが、実用化までには少なくともあと数年はかかる見通し。紙製ボトルの開発に時間がかかっているのは、炭酸飲料の味が変わらないようにしなければならないことや、バイオ素材ポリマーのような同社が求める素材が市販されていないことによる。

カールスバーグは開発を進めるために、パッケージの専門家や他社とも手を組んでいる。10日には、実用的な紙パッケージの開発を目指してウォッカ大手のアブソルートや飲料大手のコカ・コーラ、化粧品大手のロレアルと提携すると発表した。

ただしカールスバーグは缶や瓶を新しい容器に入れ替えることは望んでおらず、消費者のための新しい選択肢を提示したい意向だという。

こうした新しい容器の開発には他社も力を入れている。ペプシコとコカ・コーラはそれぞれ、プラスチックの使用を減らすためにアルミ缶入り飲料水の販売に乗り出す計画を発表。アディダスはリサイクル可能なスニーカーの開発を進めている。

Translation

2019.10.11 Fri posted at 12:30 JST

New York (CNN Business) on the 10th Danish beer giant Carlsberg, with the goal of selling beer in paper packs, unveiled a prototype of recyclable beer container that used wood fiber.

One of the two prototypes was covered with a thin film of recycled PET plastic to prevent the beer from oozing out. The other was treated with bio-materials at its surface.

The development of new containers aimed to reduce the environmental impact and to present new options to consumers.

The company explained that because fiber bottles could be supplied continuously; they were environmentally friendly compared to aluminum and glass, and the impact of their production process was very small.

Carlsberg had begun developing new containers since 2015, but it would take at least a few more years before it might be put into practical use. The development of paper bottles needed time because the taste of carbonated beverages must remain unchanged and the company's desired materials, such as bio-material polymers, were not available on the market.

Carlsberg was also working with packaging experts and other companies to advance the development. On the 10th, the company announced that it would be in partnership with the vodka giant Absolute, the beverage giant Coca-Cola and the cosmetic giant L'Oreal to develop practical paper packages.

Carlsberg, however, did not want to replace cans and bottles with new containers, and said that its intention was to show new options for consumers.

Other companies were also making efforts to develop their new containers. Pepsi-Co and Coca-Cola each announced their plans to start selling aluminum canned water to reduce the use of plastic. Adidas was developing recyclable sneakers.

      So, the big companies are responding to the call for using environmentally friendly materials in packaging their products. It is a first step in the right direction.

2019年10月25日 星期五

Among the top 10% of the world's rich people, Chinese is having the highest number of 100 million


Recently CNN.co.jp reported the following:
世界の富裕層の上位10%、中国人が1億人で最多
2019.10.22 Tue posted at 19:30 JST

保有資産の額が世界の上位10%に入る人数で中国が初めて世界トップに立った/Giulia Marchi/Bloomberg/Getty Images

ロンドン(CNN Business) スイスの金融大手クレディ・スイスが毎年、富裕層の動向をまとめている報告書の最新版によると、保有資産の額が世界の上位10%に入る人の数で中国が米国を抜き、初めて世界トップに立ったことが分かった。


報告書によると、保有資産が上位10%に入る中国人は1億人と、米国人の9900万人を上回っている。

一方で100万ドル(約1億円)以上の資産を持つ「百万長者」の数は、米国が1860万人と世界全体の40%を占め、中国は440万人にとどまった。

成人1人当たりの資産は米国が平均43万2365ドル、中国は5万8544ドルだった。

世界全体の富の分布をみると、下から50%の層が保有する額は世界の総資産の1%未満。上位10%の人が総資産の82%、上位1%が半分近くを保有している。

ただし、上位10%を除いた人口が保有する資産は世界全体の18%と、2000年の11%から増加していることが分かった。上位1%が独占する資産の合計も16年以降は減少傾向にあり、富の集中はピークを超えた可能性があるという。

Translation

2019.10.22 Tue posted at 19:30 JST
London (CNN Business) -- According to the latest edition of the Swiss financial giant Credit Suisse which reported on wealthy trends every year, it found out that regarding the number of people whose assets were in the top 10% of the world, China had overtaken the US and standing at the top of the world for the first time.

According to the report, among these top 10% asset holding people, 100 million were Chinese, surpassing 99 million Americans.

On the other hand, the number of “millionaires” with assets of more than $ 1 million (about 100 million yen) was 18.6 million in the US, accounting for 40% of the world, and China was only 4.4 million.

Assets per adult averaged was $ 432,365 in the US and $ 58,544 in China.

Looking at the distribution of wealth throughout the world, the amount held by the bottom 50% people was holding less than 1% of the world's total assets. The top 10% people own 82% of total world assets while the top 1% own nearly half.

However, excluding the top 10%, the world assets held by the population were 18%, an increase from 11% of 2000. The total assets monopolized by the top 1% had also been declining since 2016, and the concentration of wealth could had passed its peak.

     So, the world is seeing a decline in assets concentration among the people. It is surprising to note that the wealth of the Chinese has increased so much in recent years.

2019年10月21日 星期一

Chinese companies to rent Solomon's island for 75 years


Recently Nihon Keizai Shimbun Electronic Edition reported the following:
 中国企業、ソロモンの島を75年賃借か 豪紙報道
中国・台湾 南西ア・オセアニア
2019/10/18 10:59 (2019/10/18 18:58更新)
【シドニー=松本史】南太平洋の島しょ国、ソロモン諸島のツラギ島を、中国企業が長期賃借しようと地元政府と交渉を進めていることが明らかになった。オーストラリアなどの複数のメディアが18日報じた。ソロモンは9月に台湾と断交し中国と国交を樹立したばかりだ。地政学上の要衝でもあるソロモンでの中国企業の動きは、豪州に加え、中国と南太平洋で覇権を争う米国の強い警戒を招きそうだ。

ツラギ島は面積は約2平方キロメートルで、ソロモンの首都ホニアラがあるガダルカナル島の北に位置する。周囲を深い海に囲まれた天然の良港を持ち、英国の保護領時代には植民地政庁が置かれていたことがある。現在もツラギはセントラル州の州都となっている。

このセントラル州が北京に本社を置く「チャイナ・サム・エンタープライズ・グループ」と戦略的協力合意を締結した。豪紙オーストラリアン・フィナンシャル・レビューはチャイナ・サム社がツラギ島を最長で75年間賃借しようと試みているとし、「太平洋地域に中国が軍事基地を建設する道を開くとの懸念が出ている」と報じた。

チャイナ・サム社のホームページ(HP)によると、同社は化学や投資、貿易などを手掛ける複合企業だ。同社は英語版のHP上に17日付で「ソロモン諸島政府との間で戦略的協力合意に署名した」との文書を発表した。ツラギ島の賃借契約への言及はないが「投資、貿易、インフラ、農漁業、通信、旅行などの分野で協力する」と記している。

こうした報道を受け、豪州側は警戒感を強めている。外務貿易省の報道担当者は18日、日本経済新聞に対し「ソロモン諸島への投資の受け入れは、ソロモン政府が決定することだ」と指摘した。

そのうえで「太平洋(の島しょ国)に投資するあらゆる団体は透明性を保ち、国際基準を満たし、住民が必要なものを提供すべきだ」と名指しを避けながら中国をけん制した。「太平洋島しょ国において、あらゆる外国による軍事施設の建設は重大な懸念事項だ」とも述べた。

こうした豪州の警戒の背景には、南太平洋でインフラ投資を通じて影響力を強める中国への危機感がある。バヌアツでは中国が大規模な港を建設しており、2018年には中国が軍事施設建設を検討していると報じられた。ソロモンに関しては台湾との断交に前後して、台湾当局が「中国が軍事基地の建設を目指している」と指摘していた。


ソロモン、バヌアツはいずれも、米国と豪州を結ぶシーレーン(海上交通路)上に位置する。こうした島しょ国に中国が影響力を及ぼして軍事利用も可能な港や空港を建設すれば、米軍や豪軍の活動が中国に把握されかねない。

オーストラリア戦略政策研究所のピーター・ジェニングス所長は「今回の(賃借契約に向けた)動きを純粋に商業的な開発と見なすのは間違いだ」と述べ、「(中国による)軍事的な関与につながる可能性がある」と強調する。

地域に影響力を拡大する中国に対して、米国と豪州、日本は「自由で開かれたインド太平洋」構想を掲げて対抗、南太平洋の国々への関与と支援を増やしている。しかし、ソロモンに続きキリバスも9月に台湾と断交し、南太平洋地域で台湾と外交関係を持つのはツバルとパラオ、マーシャル諸島、ナウルの4カ国に減った。

いずれの国も人口が少なく、経済規模は小さい。ツバルやマーシャルは地球温暖化による海面上昇で国土が浸食されるリスクも抱える。中国がこうした国々に貿易拡大や護岸整備なども含めたインフラ支援をちらつかせて台湾断交への圧力を強めるのは必至だ。

「中国は(人工島の造成などで)南シナ海を実効支配した。次は東南アジアや太平洋島しょ国に影響力を拡大し、こうした国々を米国から引き離そうとするだろう」。ジェニングス氏はこう語る。ソロモン諸島の人口2千人に満たないツラギ島への中国企業の進出は、こうした中国の覇権拡大を象徴している。

Translation

 [Sydney = Matsumoto Fumi] It had become clear that Chinese companies were negotiating with the local government on long-term leases on Tulagi Island in the Solomon Islands, an island country in the South Pacific. Several media, including Australia, reported on the 18th. Solomon had just cut diplomatic ties with Taiwan and established a relationship with China in September. This movement of Chinese companies in Solomon, a place in a geopolitical strategic position, was likely to provoke strong alerts not only in Australia, but also in the United States that was fighting for hegemony with China and the South Pacific,.

Tulagi Island had an area of ​​about 2 square kilometers and was located north of Guadalcanal Island where Solomon's capital Honiara was seated. It had a natural good port surrounded by the deep sea, and there was a colonial government office in the British protection era. Tulagi was still the capital of Central State.

Central State had signed a strategic cooperation agreement with the “China Sam Enterprise Group” headquartered in Beijing. It was reported that an Australian newspaper - Australian Financial Review that China Sam had tried to rent Tulagi Island for up to 75 years, "There are concerns that China will open the way to build military bases in the Pacific."

According to China Sam's website (HP), the company was a conglomerate that handled chemistry, investment and trade. The company released a document on the English version of HP on August 17 stating that it had signed a strategic cooperation agreement with the Solomon Islands government. Although there was no mention of Tulagi Island's lease contracts, it said, “It will cooperate in fields such as investment, trade, infrastructure, agriculture and fisheries, communications, and travel.”

In response to such reports, the Australian side had become more alert. A spokesman for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade pointed out to Nihon Keizai Shimbun on the 18th that "the acceptance of investment in the Solomon Islands is to be decided by the Solomon government."

In addition, “any organization that invests in the Pacific Ocean should maintain transparency, meet international standards, and provide what the people need.” “In the Pacific island countries, the construction of military facilities by any foreign country is a serious concern,” he said.

The background for Australian warnings was a sense of crisis - China was becoming more influential through infrastructure investment in the South Pacific. In Vanuatu, China was building a large-scale port, and in 2018, it was reported that China was considering building a military facility. As for Solomon, before and after the disconnection with Taiwan, Taiwan authorities had pointed out that "China is aiming to build a military base".


Solomon and Vanuatu were both located on the sea lane (marine traffic route) connecting the United States and Australia. If China could influence these island countries and build ports and airports that could be used for military purposes, then the activities of the US and Australian troops may be known by China.

It is wrong to see this move as a pure commercial development,” said Peter Jennings, director of the Australian Institute for Strategic Policy. “It leads to military involvement (by China). It is possible.”

Confronting China which was expanding its influence in the region, the United States, Australia, and Japan were upholding a “free and open Indo-Pacific” concept, and were increasing their involvement and support in South Pacific countries. However, Kiribati also broke up with Taiwan in September following Solomon, and the diplomatic relations with Taiwan in the South Pacific were reduced to Tuvalu, Palau, Marshall Islands and Nauru.


All these countries had a small population and a small economy. Tuvalu and Marshall had the risk of land erosion due to rising sea levels because of global warming. It was inevitable that China intensified pressure to break Taiwan's diplomatic relations by flickering infrastructure support including expansion of trade and revetment.

Jennings said that “China has dominated the South China Sea effectively (by creating artificial islands, etc.). Next, it will expand its influence to Southeast Asia and the Pacific island countries and try to separate these countries from the United States.” The expansion of Chinese companies to Tulagi Island, which had a population of less than 2,000 in the Solomon Islands, symbolized the expansion of Chinese hegemony.

              I am just wondering why China has so much money to do overseas investment. I think it is time for the American to respond to this advance by China into the Pacific island countries.

2019年10月19日 星期六

中國設定時間表去結束外國金融上限擁有權


Yahoo Finance on 12th October, 2019 reported the following:
China Sets Timetable to End Foreign Financial Ownership Caps
Bloomberg Bloomberg News,Bloomberg Fri, Oct 11 2:35 AM PDT

(Bloomberg) -- After decades of waiting, foreign firms have a clear road map for full ownership of financial services companies in China.

Overseas institutions can apply for total control of onshore ventures starting in 2020, the China Securities Regulatory Commission said Friday. The first round of applications for futures firms can begin on Jan. 1, while fund management businesses can apply from April 1 and the securities industry will be able to file for 100% stakes on Dec. 1 next year, the CSRC said at a media briefing. The agency didn’t provide further details.

The details come after China brought forward the removal of ownership cap limits for some financial services firms by one year. Regulators lifted restrictions on full foreign ownership of local banks in 2018. China has been opening its financial sector at an unprecedented pace, luring global banking behemoths such as JPMorgan Chase & Co., Goldman Sachs Group Inc. and Morgan Stanley to compete for an estimated $9 billion in annual profits.


China is seeking to make it more attractive and convenient for foreigners to buy its stocks and bonds, and having foreign-owned financial services firms is one way to encourage that. Over the coming years, the likely emergence of a persistent current-account deficit will mean the nation needs foreign capital to balance its payments.

This is a major step forward, which foreign investors have been looking forward to for nearly 20 years,” said Ren Zhiyi, a Shanghai-based partner at law firm Fangda Partners who has worked on joint ventures since 2003. “Securities have long been the most protected sector” of China’s financial industry, he said.


Since announcing its plan to open China’s more than $40 trillion financial system to overseas companies in November 2017, the government has been steadily changing its rules even as the trade war with the U.S. escalated.

Last year authorities began allowing offshore firms to take majority stakes in the sector, though there have only been a few approvals and all of them were given to securities ventures. Despite also improving access to Chinese capital markets, foreign participation is still just a fraction of overall business.

Removing ownership caps will help prompt a higher participation of foreign financial firms in China, lure more long-term foreign capital and help with currency internationalization,” said Mark Huang, a Hong Kong-based analyst at Bright Smart Securities. “The trade war has also pressured China to create a better business environment to boost their attractiveness to foreign firms.”

The CSRC announcement came hours after U.S. President Donald Trump said the first day of high-level trade negotiations between America and China had gone “very well” and that he plans to meet with the top Chinese negotiator Friday. The talks between Chinese Vice Premier Liu He, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin are expected to resume Friday, Trump said. They’re the first senior-level in-person talks since late July.

Full Force

Even amid the tensions, Wall Street firms have pushed ahead with building a greater presence in the world’s second biggest economy.

Mark Leung, JPMorgan’s chief executive officer for China, said in a Bloomberg Television interview on Thursday that the firm is “going full force in.”

Our ambition is to ensure we have full ownership,” he said. “That’s the only way we as a firm believe we can really deliver a differentiating client experience through bringing our global scale and product expertise on the ground.”

The threat of financial decoupling looms, however, with the Trump administration looking at potential restrictions on U.S. investments in Chinese companies and financial markets -- which would open a new front in the U.S.-China trade war.

But Beijing policy makers have pushed ahead with the promise made in late 2017 to open its financial system to the world. In late September, senior Wall Street figures including Goldman Sachs Chief Operating Officer John Waldron and Morgan Stanley’s global head of international business, Franck Petitgas, attended a meeting in the Chinese capital with top national regulators.

Since China permitted majority control of financial services firms last year, UBS Group AG, Nomura Holdings Inc. and JPMorgan gained control of local securities joint ventures. Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley and DBS Group Holdings Ltd. have applied to follow their rivals.


China is following through on its promise of financial opening,” said Ding Meng, a senior strategist at Bank of China Ltd.’s Macau branch. “The timetable was moved earlier than expected, which showcases their determination.”

Translation


(彭博社)- 經過數十年的等待,外國公司有明確的路線圖去擁有在中國的金融服務公司。

中國證券監督管理委員會周五表示,海外機構可以從2020年開始申請對境企業的全面控制。中國證監會在媒體上,期貨公司的第一輪申請可以從11日開始,基金管理業務可以從41日開始申請,證券業可以在明年121日申請擁有股份的100%。該機構沒有提供進一步的細節。

有關細節是在中國提出將一些金融服務公司的所有權上限限制取消之後一年提出。監管機構於2018年取消了對外資在當地銀行中擁有全部股份的限制。中國一直用前所未有的步伐開放其金融部門,吸引了摩根大通,高盛集團和摩根士丹利等全球銀行業巨頭競相競購。年利潤估計有90億美元。

中國正在尋求用更具吸引力和便利性去吸引外國人購買股票和債券,鼓勵這種做法的一種方式是去吸有外資金融服務公司。在未來幾年,經常賬赤字的持續出現可能意味著該國需要外資來平衡其收支。

方大律師事務所上海合夥人任志義:“這是向前邁出的重要一步,外國投資者已經期待了將近20年。自2003年以來,方志合夥人一直在合資企業中工作。他,在中國金融業 證券一直最受保護的領域

201711月宣布向海外公司開放中國40萬億美元以上金融體系的計劃以來,即使與美國的貿易戰升級,政府也一直在穩步改變其規則。

去年,當局開始允許離岸公司持有該領域的多數股權,儘管只有少數幾個項目獲批准,而且全部都授予了證券公司。增加了進入中國資本市場的機會,但外國的參與仍然只是整體業務的一小部分。

Bright Smart Securities駐香港分析師馬克·黃(Mark Huang)表示: “取消所有權上限將有助於促使外國金融公司更多地參與中國,吸引更多的長期外資,並有助於貨幣國際化。” 貿易戰也向中國施加了壓力,要求中國創造一個更好的商業環境,以增強它們對外國公司的吸引力。”

在美國總統唐納德·特朗普(Donald Trump美中之間的高層貿易談判的第一天“進展得很好”數小時之後,中國證監會宣布了上述消息。他計劃週五與中國最高談判代表會晤。特朗普,預計中國副總理劉鶴,美國貿易代表羅伯特·萊希澤(Robert Lighthizer)和財政部長史蒂芬·努欽(Steven Mnuchin)之間的會談將於星期五恢復。這是自7月下旬以來的首次高層對話。

全力以赴

即使在緊張局勢之中,華爾街的公司仍在推動在世界第二大經濟體當中建立更大的影響力。

摩根大通(中國)首席執行官馬克·梁(Mark Leung)週四在接受彭博電視台採訪時表示,該公司正在“全面發揮作用”。

:“我們的抱負是確保擁有全部所有權。”這是我們堅信的唯一途徑,透過將我們的全球規模和品專業知識紮根落實,能真正提供與眾不同的客體驗。”

然而,隨著特朗普政府正在考慮對美國對中國公司和金融市場投資的潛在可能限制,財務鉤的威脅迫在眉睫 - 這將在美中貿易戰中開新的戰線。

但北京的政策制定者已兌現了2017年底作出的向世界開放其金融體系的承諾。 9月下旬,包括高盛(Goldman Sachs)首席運營官John Waldron和摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)全球國際業務負責人Franck Petitgas的華爾街高級人士出席了在中國首都與國家最高監管機構舉行的會議。

由於去年中國允許對金融服務公司實行多數控制權,因此瑞銀集團,野村控股公司和摩根大已通獲得了對當地證券合資企業的控制權。高盛,摩根士丹利和星展集團控股有限公司申請效仿其競爭對手。

中國銀行澳門分行高級策略師丁萌表示:“中國正在遵守其金融開放的承諾。” “時間表比預期提前了,這顯示了他們的決心。”

    So, China is modernizing its financial system in order to let in more foreign investment.

2019年10月16日 星期三

Chinese armaments - to strengthen transferring technology from overseas private companies

Recently Nihon Keizai Shimbun electronic version reported the following:
中国の軍備、海外民間企業から技術移転し増強
テック・スクロール・アジア エディター ジェームズ・キング
中国・台湾 北米 アジアBiz
2019/10/3 18:30日本経済新聞 電子版

今週、北京で披露された新技術は、その巨大さにもかかわらず、長年ベールに包まれたままだった。中国の建国記念日に公開された大陸間弾道ミサイル「東風41」が隠すべき秘密はもうない。建国70年で開催された過去最大規模の軍事パレードの目玉だったからだ。

このモンスター級ミサイルは10個の核弾頭を同時に運べる。世界のどの大陸間弾道ミサイルよりも長い射程を持ち、米国本土のあらゆる標的に届く。軍事アナリストによると音速の25倍の速度で飛行し、米国内の標的に約30分で到達する。

何のために使うのか。「この巨大な殺人兵器を米国を抑制するために使いたい」。中国・人民解放軍を退役した元大佐はフィナンシャル・タイムズ(FT)紙にこう語った。「米国と競争するのは難しいが、このユニークな機器で、米国が我々に先制攻撃をできないようにする」とも話した。

東風41は中国が急速に近代化を進める軍のシンボルの一つだ。一方で、それは欧米や日本の民間企業を悩ませている。米国は現在、140超の企業・団体や個人が対象の「禁輸対象リスト(エンティティーリスト)」を通じ、中国への技術移転の精査を強めている。その結果、米当局は「ブラックリスト入り」した中国企業に対して部品などの取引を制限した。
ただ西側企業にとって本当に悩ましいのは(技術移転の意図は無くても)中国では民間と軍事用途の技術の境界線が非常にあいまいで判別しにくい点だ。人工知能(AI)や半導体、ソフトウエア、ロボット技術、人工衛星などは民間と軍事の両方に用途がある。

非営利コンサルタント組織のC4ADSのリポートは、海外の民間技術が中国の軍の近代化に役立っていることを指摘する。英半導体企業のダイネックスの技術は軍用機を空母から発艦させる高度なカタパルトシステムの開発に役立った。海外企業にとって、中国の取引先が民営企業なのか、軍事複合体の派生企業なのかを理解するのは難しい。

欧州エアバスと仏サフランの航空機関連大手2社が研究協力を表明した金属用3Dプリンターを手掛ける西安ブライト・レーザーも同様の事例の可能性が高い。同社は表向きでは民間企業だが別の顔も持つ。8社の国営軍需関連企業とつながりがあり民間技術の軍事転用への貢献で中国・工業情報化省に称賛された投資会社から資金を調達した。

C4ADSのリポートによると、エアバスの現地幹部は西安ブライト・レーザーとの合意で「航空分野の新技術を開発し、中国の航空産業の発展に貢献したい」と語った。

これらは最新鋭ミサイル東風41からは遠い話だ。ただ、建国記念日で披露された先端技術は、技術移転に対する米国の懸念をさらに拡大させ、西側企業の中国企業との取引や投資への疑念を深める原因をつくるだけのものだったといえる。

Translation

The new technology presented in Beijing this week had been veiled for many years despite its enormous size. There was no more secret to hide about the Dongfeng 41, an intercontinental ballistic missile that was open to the public on China's National Day. It was the centerpiece of the largest military parade ever held in 70 years.

This monster-class missile could carry 10 nuclear warheads simultaneously. It had a longer range than any other intercontinental ballistic missile in the world and could reach any target on the continental United States. According to military analysts, they flied at 25 times the speed of sound and reached targets in the United States in about 30 minutes.

What would it be used for? “I want to use this huge murder weapon to check the United States.” A former Colonel who retired from the Chinese People's Liberation Army told the Financial Times (FT). “It's hard to compete with the United States, but this unique device makes it impossible for the United States to attack us first.”

Dongfeng 41 was one of the symbols of the military that China was rapidly modernizing. Meanwhile, it caused troubles in Western and Japanese private companies. The United States was now scrutinizing technology transfer to China through an “embargoed list (entity list)” for more than 140 companies, organizations and individuals. As a result, US authorities had restricted parts trading to Chinese companies that were “blacklisted”.

However, what was really annoying for Western companies (even though there was no intention of technology transfer) was that the boundaries between civilian and military technology were very vague and difficult to discern. Artificial intelligence (AI), semiconductors, software, robotics, and satellites had applications in both the civilian and military sectors.

A non-profit consultant C4ADS report pointed out that foreign civilian technology was helping modernize the Chinese military. Dynex technology, a British semiconductor company, helped develop advanced catapult systems that launch military aircraft from aircraft carriers. It was difficult for foreign companies to understand whether their business partners in China were private companies or derivative companies of military complexes.

Europe Airbus and two major aircraft-related companies in Saffron France had announced their research cooperation with Xi'an Bright Laser, a 3D printer for metal, was likely to be in the same situation. Although the company was a private company, it had a different face. The company raised funds from an investment company that was connected with eight state-owned military-related companies and was praised by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in China for contributing to the diversion of civilian technology.

According to a C4ADS report, Airbus local executives said that through an agreement with Xi'an Bright Laser "they would like to develop new aviation technology, and to contribute to the development of China's aviation industry."

These were long stories from the latest missile Dongfeng 41. However, the state-of-the-art technology presented on National Day was only a cause for further US concern about technology transfer and deepening suspicion about Western business and investment with Chinese companies.

     I think technology transfer is one major topic of discussion  between the US and China in ending the present trade war.

2019年10月13日 星期日

Hong Kong launches “Emergency Ordinance” for the first time in half a century


Recently the Nihon Keizai Shimbun Electronic Edition reported the following:
香港、半世紀ぶり「緊急条例」発動 デモでの覆面禁止
中国・台湾
2019/10/4 16:18 (2019/10/5 1:19更新)
【香港=木原雄士】香港政府は4日、行政長官の権限であらゆる規則を適用できる「緊急状況規則条例」を発動すると発表した。これに基づき、デモ参加者が顔を隠すのを禁じる「覆面禁止規則」を5日から適用する。緊急条例は立法会(議会)の手続きを経ずに規則を定める異例のもので、発動は英国統治に対する暴動が起きた1967年以来52年ぶり。民主派の反発は必至だ。

林鄭月娥(キャリー・ラム)行政長官は4日の記者会見で「暴力がエスカレートしている。政府として止める責任がある」と強調した。覆面禁止に違反した場合は、最高で禁錮1年か25千香港ドル(約34万円)の罰金が科される。医療目的や宗教上の理由、警察官などが仕事上の必要で顔を覆うのは禁止しない。

緊急条例は英国の植民地時代の1922年にできた。行政長官が緊急事態と判断すれば、集会や通信の制限を含むあらゆる規則を制定できる。民主派団体の民間人権陣線は4日「政府は悪意のある規則を押しつけるために議会を飛ばした」と批判する声明を出した。

政府内には覆面禁止にとどまらず、より踏み込んだ措置が必要との見方もある。夜間の外出禁止令や勾留期間の拡大など、さらなる規制に対する懸念が強まる可能性がある。

香港では「逃亡犯条例」改正案をきっかけにしたデモが4カ月近く続いている。最近のデモ参加者は警察が使う催涙弾への対策や個人の特定を避けるためマスクなどで顔全体を覆う人が多い。親中派などから、覆面の安心感が公共施設の破壊や放火など過激な抗議活動につながっているとの指摘が出ていた。

とりわけ中国建国70年の1日以降、過激なデモが続いており、立法会の新たな会期が始まる16日を待たずに覆面禁止規則を施行する必要があると判断した。政府はこれとは別に、生徒は原則マスクを着用すべきではないとする通達を出した。

若者は警察による実弾発砲などに反発を強めており、覆面禁止だけで過激なデモを抑え込めるかは不透明だ。4日に新界地区で警官隊とデモ隊が衝突し、警官が実弾を発砲した。14歳の少年の左太ももに被弾し、病院に搬送された。意識はあるという。

4日深夜には、香港の鉄道全線が運行を停止した。駅への放火など過激化する抗議活動を受けて運行は困難と判断した。

政府がさらなる強硬策に踏み込めば若者らの反発が強まり、落ち込みの目立つ香港経済への打撃は避けられない。国際社会の批判も高まりつつあり、林鄭氏は難しい決断を迫られる。

Translation

 [Hong Kong = Yuji Kihara] The Hong Kong government announced on the 4th that it would activate the “Emergency Situation Regulations” that could apply all the rules under the authority of the chief executive. Based on this, the “No Masking Rules” would be applied starting on the 5th, prohibiting demonstrators from hiding their faces. The urgent ordinance was an unusual one that established rules without going through legislative (parliamentary) procedures, and it was activated for the first time in 52 years since 1967 when the riots against British rule occurred. Democratic backlash was inevitable.

Chief Executive Lin Zheng Yue (Carrie Lam) stressed at the press conference on the 4th that “violence is escalating. It is the responsible of the government to stop it”. If you violated the masking ban, you might get an imprisonment up to 1 year and be fined HK $ 25,000 (approximately 340,000 yen). It was not prohibited for medical purposes, religious reasons, and also for police officers and others to cover their faces due to working needs.

The urgent ordinance was established in 1922 during the British colonial period. If the chief executive decided that there was an emergency, it could enact all the rules, including restrictions on meetings and communications. The Civil Human Rights Front, a pro-democracy group, issued a statement on the 4th criticizing the government for skipping legislature to force through malicious rules.

There was a view within the government that not only masking was prohibited, but more detailed measures were needed. Concerns about further regulations, such as nighttime bans and extended detention periods might increase.

In Hong Kong, demonstrations triggered by the amendment to the “Fugitive Ordinance” had continued for nearly four months. Many of the recent demonstrators covered their entire faces with masks to prevent tears used by the police and to avoid personal identification. The pro-Chinese group pointed out that the security of the mask was leading to radical protests such as the destruction and arson of public facilities.

In particular, since the first day after the 70th year of the founding of China, there had been an intense demonstration, and it was determined that the anti-masking rule should be enforced without waiting for the 16th when the new legislative session would begin. Apart from this, the government issued a notice that in principle students should not wear masks.

Young people were strongly opposed to the live-ammunition firing by the police etc., and it was unclear whether radical demonstrations could be suppressed merely by banding the masking. On the 4th, the police and demonstrators collided in the New Territories area, and the police fired live ammunition. A 14-year-old boy was hit at the left thigh and was taken to a hospital. He was consciousness.

At midnight on the 4th, all Hong Kong railway lines stopped operating. Operation was judged difficult due to intensifying protests such as arson to the station.

If the government took further hard-line measures, the rebound of young people could increase, and it might be inevitable that the Hong Kong economy could suffer a sharp decline. The criticism of the international community was growing, and Ms. Lin Zheng was forced to make difficult decisions.

     So, the Hong Kong Government is trying to use suppression to deal with the current political problem in Hong Kong.

2019年10月12日 星期六

中國政府加强影響阿里巴巴等私營巨頭


On 23 September 2019 Yahoo News On-line reported the following:
China Boosts Government Presence at Alibaba and other Private Giants
Bloomberg Lulu Yilun Chen,Bloomberg 9 hours ago

(Bloomberg) -- The government of one of China’s top technology hubs is dispatching officials to 100 local corporations including e-commerce giant Alibaba Group Holding Ltd., the latest effort to exert greater influence over the country’s massive private sector.

Hangzhou, in the eastern province of Zhejiang, is assigning government affairs representatives to facilitate communication and expedite projects, the city government said on its website. Chinese beverage giant Hangzhou Wahaha Group Co. and automaker Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co. are among the other companies based in the prosperous region that have been singled out, according to reports in state media.

The Hangzhou government said the initiative was aimed at smoothing work flow between officials and China’s high-tech companies and manufacturers. But the move could be perceived also as an effort to keep tabs on a non state-owned sector that’s gaining clout as a prime driver of the world’s No. 2 economy. Representatives of the country’s public security system are already embedded within China’s largest internet companies, responsible for crime prevention and stamping out false rumors.

Government agencies may also be heightening their monitoring of the vast private sector at a time China’s economy is decelerating -- raising the prospect of destabilizing job cuts as enterprises try to protect bottom lines. Alibaba is hosting its annual investors’ conference this week in Hangzhou against the backdrop of a worsening outlook for the country.

They might be checking whether the Communist party units are working effectively within the companies,” said Paul Gillis, a professor at Peking University’s Guanghua School of Management. “While China legitimized capitalism, the level of government influence was never intended to disappear. Occasionally private entrepreneurs forget about this and are reminded of it.”

Zhejiang is considered the cradle of modern Chinese private enterprise, home to a generation of self-made billionaires from Alibaba’s Jack Ma and Geely founder Li Shufu to Wahaha’s Zong Qinghou. The Communist Party accepted so-called “red capitalists” or private entrepreneurs into the Party in 2001, allowing them to become part of the country’s legislature a year later.

Still, the relationship between Beijing and well-known business people remains sensitive. The government has been seen to try and step up an official presence within non-state firms, by among other things mandating that private companies of scale set up and maintain a Party branch. It wasn’t clear whether the 100 Zhejiang-based companies included foreign enterprises.


We understand this initiative from the Hangzhou city government aims to foster a better business environment in support of Hangzhou-based enterprises. The government representative will function as a bridge to the private sector, and will not interfere with the company’s operations,” Alibaba said in a text statement. Representatives for Wahaha and Geely didn’t immediately respond to requests for comment.

The Hangzhou initiative also underscores how the government is trying to arrest a slowdown in the economy brought on by the trade war, said Brock Silvers, managing director of Kaiyuan Capital. He expects similar policies to soon follow for other manufacturing-intensive areas.

The economic slowdown and trade war are having a significant impact on China’s manufacturing base, and officials probably don’t see a quick resolution on the horizon,” Silvers said. “As the government expects manufacturers to experience near-term difficulties, it wants to exert a firm control over local policy decisions and implementation.”


Translation

(彭博社)- 在最大技術中心之一, 中國政府正派遣官員到包括電子商務巨頭阿里巴巴集團控股有限公司在100家當地公司,這是中國對龐大的私營部門施加更大影響力的最新舉措。

杭州市政府在其網站上,位於浙江省東部的杭州市正在指派政府事務代表,以促進溝通和加快項目建設。據官方媒體報導,中國飲料業巨頭杭州娃哈哈集團有限公司和汽車製造商浙江吉利控股集團有限公司是位於繁榮地區中的公司。

杭州市政府表示,該舉措旨在使官員與中國高科技公司和製造商之間的工作流程更加順暢。但是,但此舉也可能被視為試圖非國有部門,而非國有部門作為全球第二大經濟體的主要驅動力,正在獲得影響力。中國公共安全系統的代表已經紮根於中國最大的互聯網公司中,負責預防犯罪和杜虛假謠言。

在中國經濟減速之際,政府機構也可能會加強對龐大的私營部門的監控 - 隨著企業試圖保護本身底線,裁員動蕩的可能性增加了。在阿里巴巴的前景惡化的背景下,阿里巴巴將於本週在杭州舉行年度投資者會議。

北京大學光華管理學院教授保羅·吉利斯:“他們可能正在檢黨單位在公司部運作是否有效。”儘管中國使資本主義合法化,但政府的影響力從没有消失的意。有時,私人企業家會忘記這一點,因此需要對此有所提醒。”

浙江被認為是現代中國民營企業的搖籃,這裡有阿里巴巴的馬雲和吉利創始人李書福, 到娃哈哈的宗慶後等一代白手起家的億萬富翁。共黨在2001年接受所謂的 “紅色資本家” 或称私人企業家加入該黨,並在一年後允許他們成為該國立法機關的一員。

不過,北京與知名商人之間的關係仍然很敏感。人們已經看到政府試圖通過授權, 在大型私人公司成立和維持黨支部等措施,加強官方在非國有公司中地位。。目前尚不清楚這100家浙江公司是否包括外國企業。

阿里巴巴在一份文本聲明中“我們了解到杭州市政府的這一舉措旨在營造更好的商業環境,以支持杭州企業。政府代表將充當通往私營部門的橋樑,並且不會干擾公司的運營。”娃哈哈和吉利的代表沒有立即回應置評請求。

開元資本董事總經理布羅克·西爾弗斯(Brock Silvers)表示,杭州倡議還強調了政府如何努力遏制貿易戰帶來的經濟放緩。他預計在其他密集型製造業地區也將很快有類似的政策。

西爾弗斯:“經濟放緩和貿易戰對中國的製造業基礎生了重大影響,官員們可能不會看到一個快速解決方案。”由於政府製造商在短期內會遇到困難,因此它希望嚴格控制當地的政策决定和實施。”

       I hope this new move by the Chinese government would not made the private companies worry about their survival.