2010年1月30日 星期六

The China White Paper 1949 (XIII)

As early as in 1932, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had already declared 'war' on Japan although they were hiding in Kiangsi resisting the military suppresion initiated by Chiang Kai-shek. It was only in 1936 that CCP officially joined Chiang Kai-shek in a united front to fight the Japanese. KMT's change of attitude towards CCP was caused by the 'Sian Incident' that took place in mid-December. On December 12th, 1936 Chang Hsueh-liang (張學良), a deputy of Chiang, mounted a coup in Sian of Shensi Province and 'arrested' Chiang while the latter was paying a visit there. Chang then issued a circular telegram to demand changes in the KMT. In total there were eight points which included 1) to reorganize the Nanking government 2) to end the civil war with the Chinese Communists, and 3) to resist Japanese intrusion into China. These requests were similar to those points requested by CCP in a telegram issued in early December, 1936. On December 25, after being held in captive for 13 days Chiang was released when some kind of understanding was reached between KMT and CCP. A wartime entente between the KMT and CCP appeared. While officially KMT announced ceasing the policy of suppressing the Communist, the Communist proclaimed the abandonment of anti-Nanking government insurrection. In the following months, Chou En-lai (周恩來) representing CCP negotiated with KMT to work out the conditions for the entente for the purpose of ending the civil war. (to be continued)

United States, Department of State. The China White Paper-August 1949. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1967, pages 45-49.

2010年1月26日 星期二

The China White Paper 1949(XII)

In June 1928 KMT forces took Peking and formally united China after destroying the power of the Northern warlords. As for the Chinese Communists, after the were purged from the cities they concentrated in a small area in Kiangsi which was basically an agrarian region. The Communists shifted their tactic and began working with the peasants there. According to The White Paper, this was the forerunner of later Communist expansion and success. It was during this period that Mao Tse-tung's faction which favoured the interest of the farmer, triumphed over Li Li-san's faction which favoured a urban policy. In the five years from 1930 to 1935, Chiang Kai-shek mounted five military campaigns for the purpose of exterminating the Communist forces in China but without much success. However in the fifth attempt, the Communists were forced to leave their bases in southern China and fled to a Communist base in northwest in 1935, and settled down there as a much reduced force, waiting for the opportunity to rise up again. Meanwhile Chiang Kai-shek had the opportunity to consolidate China. In early 1930s when the KMT was busily engaging the Communist, Japan started its encroachment on China, starting with the occupation of Manchuria in 1931 that eventually led to the Marco Polo Bridge incident happened on July 7th, 1937, and the subsequently full scale Sino-Japanese War that ended in 1945. (to be continued)

United States, Department of State. The China White Paper-August 1949. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1967, pages 44-5

2010年1月23日 星期六


最近在電視和新聞報紙等媒介中, 不時看到圍繞以下主題的新聞:


中 日 外 長 就 東 海 油 氣 田 開 發 激 烈交 換 意 見 。
《 共 同 社 》 報 道 , 外 相 岡 田 克 也 向 到 訪 日 本 的 外 長 楊 潔 篪 表 明, 若 果 中 國 單 方 面 開 採 有 爭 議 的 東 海 油 氣 田 , 日 本 將 會 在 所 屬 海 域 內 進 行 開 採 , 楊 潔 篪 當 場表 示 強 烈 反 對 。
雙 方 就 東 海 油 氣 田 共 同 開 採 問 題 , 在 2008 年 達 成 初 步 協 議 , 日 本 指 稱 , 雙 方 一 直 未 就 具 體 安 排 進 行 談 判 ; 有 報 道 指 出 ,中 國 去 年 曾 經 派 出 船 隻 , 勘 察 春 曉 油 氣 田 一 帶 。

(2) The United States will issue a formal protest to the Chinese government demanding an explanation for the cyber attack on Google that the company says originated from China. "We will be issuing a formal demarche in Beijing", likely early this week, to express US unease about the incident, State Department spokesman Philip Crowley said in Washington.

(中新社北京一月十五日電) 國務院港澳事務辦公室發言人就香港個別社會組織針對香港未來政制發展問題發動“五區公投運動”一事發表談話,全文如下:


Associated Press in Geneva 2:23pm, Jan 22, 2010
Pascal Lamy said his institution was up to the task of ensuring that Washington and Beijing never get into an all-out trade war that could have devastating consequences for the global economy. The WTO will be challenged over the next two years as unemployment figures remain high and test the free-trade credentials of world leaders, he predicted. “There is no risk of slipping into a trade war,” Lamy said in an interview on Thursday.

My Comments
無盡的外交和內部角力, 對中國政府來說, 可能覺不到什麼疲倦. 不過對我來說, 作為旁觀者, 亦看到累了.

2010年1月22日 星期五


Recently Mainichi News reported the following:

 増え続ける超高層マンションの地震対策が新たな課題として浮上している中、東京都中央区の「リガーレ日本橋人形町」(39階建て、335戸)の住民が区と協力し、地震発生時の対応マニュアルを作成した。行政の応援を待たず、住民同士の連携で避難行動や救助・救護活動を進める内容で、モデルケースとして注目されている。 不動産情報サービス会社「東京カンテイ」(東京都品川区)によると、高さ60メートル(20階建て)以上の超高層マンションは99年から増え始め、09年までに全国で約800棟が完成した。東京都中央区でもマンションに住む人の割合が8割を超え、超高層マンションも42棟ある。区は06年度からマンションの管理組合にマニュアル作りを呼び掛け、既に3棟が作成した。「リガーレ」のマニュアルはA4判55ページ。住民11人で作る防災対策委員会が中心となり1年半かけて作成した。震度5強以上の地震が発生して電気、水道、ガスがストップ、エレベーターも使えなくなったとの想定で、3日間の取るべき行動を詳細に示している。 まず12階以下の住民が1階の防災センターに集まり、対策本部を設置。13階以上は5階ごとに5ブロックに分け、住民の安否情報を各ブロックの拠点階に集約、非常用電話で対策本部に伝える。対策本部は状況を整理し、3階の集会室への避難を順次指示する。 2~3日目は、倉庫に備蓄した水や食料、救援物資などをブロックごとに配布する。時間帯などによって在宅者が変わるため、住民の役割分担は集まった人の中で決める。 管理組合の鈴木健一理事長(49)は「首都直下地震が近い将来起こるとされる中、マンションの構造や環境に応じたマニュアルが必要だと考えた」と説明する。 高橋和義・区防災課長は「大地震が起きると公的機関も被災し、交通途絶の恐れもあるため、3日間程度は救助に向かえない可能性がある。まずは住民に自力で対応してもらうことが、減災につながる」と訴えている。


When the question on how super high buildings would handle the problem of earthquake began to surface and became a new topic amid the appearance of high buildings, in co-operation with the district resident of "[Riga-re] Nihonbashi Ningyocho" of Tokyo Middle Ward (39 stories with 335 households), a manual was made that laid down procedures for super high rise apartment buildings when earthquake occurred. The manual drew attention in that it was a model on how, without waiting for the assistance from the administration, the residents could carry out evacuation activity and rescue relief activity by themselves through resident's cooperation. The super high-rise apartment buildings of 60 meters or more (20 stories) in height began to increase from 1999, and about 800 houses were completed in the whole country by 2009 according to Real Estate Pages service company "Tokyo [kantei]" (Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo). In Tokyo Middle Ward, the ratio of the person who lived in the apartment house was exceeding 80 percent and there were 42 super high-rise apartment buildings. In fiscal year 2006, there were calls on the management union in the apartment house to make the manual, and three districts had already made it. The manual of "[Riga-re]" was in A4 size with 55 pages. The 11- resident disaster prevention task force took the leading role and spent 1 and a half years to complete it. Assuming the earthquake of class five in the seismic intensity would occur, it could stop electricity, water service, gas, and the elevator, making them all impossible to use for three days. The manual showed in detail the action that should be taken. Residents of the 12th floor and below would first gather in the disaster-prevention center on the first floor and form a task force. It would divide other floors into five blocks with every fifth floor, disaster information about the residents would be consolidated on block basis, and the task force would be told about information on the 13th floor and above by an emergency telephone. The task force would handle the situation, and would direct shelter on the third floor meeting room in a orderly manner. Water, food, and the rescue supply, etc. saved at the warehouse would be distributed to blocks on the 2nd to 3rd day. Because the person who would be at home may differ during different time period, therefore depending on the person who would be gathering, resident's roles would be decided. Chief director Kenichi Suzuki (49) of the management union explained, " assuming that the capital inland earthquake would happen in the near future, it is thought that a manual corresponding to the structure and the environment and their apartment house is necessary". The district disaster prevention section chief Kazuyoshi Takahashi said that "There is a possibility that they cannot have rescue for about three days because public organizations would be hit when a large earthquake occurs, and there is fear of traffic suspension, too. At the start, if residents could use their effort to start self help, it would mitigate the disaster".

From the above, it seems that Japanese people living in high rise buildings in Tokyo are quite well prepared in the event of an earthquake.

2010年1月21日 星期四


"新編日語外來語詞典"是由香港商務印書館出版. 正如這書在前言中所說, 這本書的取材, 除了政治, 經濟, 社會, 軍事, 通訊, 科技等方面字彙外, 還包括運動,音樂戲劇, 醫藥衛生, 電影和電視, 服飾髮型等日常用到的外來語. 這本詞典是用日文五十音順用片假名把外來語排列出來. 每一個詞條均有原文, 詞的應用範等資料. 外來語全部共收集了大約62,000個, 每個字都有中文解釋. 這詞典於1989年出版, 1999年3月是第三次印刷. 全書有1072頁.

2010年1月18日 星期一


"最新日語外來語.略語詞典"是由中國大陸世界圖書出版公司出版. 正如這本書在前言中所說, 近年日語中用片假名書寫的外來語急劇增加, 幾乎無處不在. 在這背景之下, 恰好這詞典可以幫到我. 使我可以準確地瞭解那些常見的片假名詞語的詞義. 這本詞典是用日文五十音順把外來語排列, 廣泛收錄來自經濟, 電子,政治, 媒體等片假名總計約有20,000個. 每個字都有說明其原來語. 然後用日語解釋. 這詞典於1999年出版, 2001再版, 有831頁.

2010年1月17日 星期日


Recently NHK reported the following:

岡田外務大臣は東京都内で中国の楊外相と会談し、日中両国が共同開発することで合意している東シナ海の白樺ガス田について、中国が単独で開発を進めるようなことがあれば、日本としても対抗措置を取らざるをえないという考えを示しました。 日中外相会談は、東京で開かれた「アジア中南米協力フォーラム」の外相会合にあわせて行われました。この中で岡田外務大臣は、日中両国が共同開発することで合意している東シナ海の白樺ガス田について、「早期に条約の締結交渉に入れるよう、事務当局に指示してほしい」と述べ、共同開発に向けた具体的な協議を始めるよう求めました。そのうえで岡田外務大臣は、中国が単独で白樺ガス田に資材の搬入を始めるなどの動きがあることについて、「合意に反することがあれば、しかるべき措置を取る」と述べ、中国が単独で開発を進めるようなことがあれば、日本としても対抗措置を取らざるをえないという考えを示しました。これに対し、楊外相は「合意の実施に向けた環境整備が必要であり、実務レベルによる非公式の接触を継続したい」と従来からの考えを述べるにとどまりました。

Japan Foreign Minister Okada conferred with China Foreign Minister Yang in Tokyo to express the idea that Japan could not help but taking countermeasures if China alone pushed forward development of the white birch gas field in East China Sea which had been agreed by the two countries that it should be jointly developed. The Sino-Japanese foreign ministerial meeting was held additionally to the Foreign Minister meeting of "Asian Latin American cooperation forum" opened in Tokyo. In this meeting, Foreign Minister Okada said that regarding the white birch gas field in East China Sea which was agreed to be jointly developed by the two countries, "It is hoped that you will direct the authorities directly in charge to start the conclusion negotiation of the agreement as agreed upon in earlier agreements", and requested the start of a concrete conference for the joint development. Regarding the unilateral movement of China to start alone by carrying materials to the white birch gas field etc. Foreign Minister Okada expressed that, "If it contradicted mutual agreement, proper measures would be taken", and Japan could not help also taking countermeasures if China initiated development alone. In response, China Foreign Minister Yang merely repeated the idea of the past, saying that "Environmental considerations for the execution of mutual agreement is necessary, and want to continue informal contact on practical level".

I hope both China and Japan could have the wisdom of settling the dispute peacefully.

2010年1月14日 星期四


Recently Mainichi News reported the following:

愛知県は14日、一般職員の給与を10年度から4%削減する案を県職員組合など13の職員団体に提示した。2800億円に上る財源不足を受けたためで、実施されれば、2年連続で給与の抑制となる。 県人事課によると、対象は行政職員、警察官、教員などの計約7万4000人。09年度に比べ、4%が削減されると、一般職員の平均で給与が年17万円、期末手当7万円がそれぞれ減額される。職員は既に10年度から地域手当の1.5%削減が決まっており、合わせると、10年度から年33万円の減少となり、全体では308億円の抑制効果があるという。愛知県の10年度予算は09年度比で、県税収入が1080億円の減収を見込んでおり、社会保障費の増額など歳出も膨らむことが予測されることなどから、現段階で2800億円の財源不足となっている。県は県債の大幅な発行などで改善に努めていたが、歳出抑制策として職員の給与削減が避けられないと判断した。

On the 14th, Aichi Prefecture presented to 13 prefecture faculty union employee organizations about the idea of reducing regular employee's salary from 2010 fiscal year by 4%. Salary control was carried out 2 years in a row because it had a funding shortage up to 280 billion yen. According to the prefecture personnel division, the target of this reduction was 74,000 people in total which would include administrative staff, policemen, and teachers. On average for a regular employee, when a 4% salary reduction was made compared with fiscal year 2009, a reduction of 170,000 yen of yearly payment and 70,000 yen of the end of the term payment would be achieved respectively. Adding to the 1.5% reduction in regional subsidies that had already been decided since 2010 fiscal year, the staff might suffer a cut up to 330,000 yen a year in 2010 fiscal year, and as a whole producing an effect of controlling the amount to 30.8 billion yen. In Aichi Prefecture, compared with fiscal year 2009, prefecture tax revenue had a forecasted decrease of 108 billion yen, while the annual expenditure like the increase of cost of Social Security etc. had contributed to the annual expenditure increase, thus creating a 280 billion yen budget shortage in 2010 fiscal year at the present stage. As an annual expenditure control plan, the staff salary reduction was judged to be unavoidable, although the prefecture was seeking improvement by the issuing prefecture bond in great number.

From the above, it seems that many Japanese are still struggling with a tight budget.

2010年1月12日 星期二

The China White Paper 1949 (XI)

According to the White Paper, the first Communist groups in China were formed in Peking in 1919 and 1920 by Chen Tu-hsiu (陳獨秀) and some other students, including Mao Tse-tung (毛澤東). In 1923 the Third Congress of the Communist Party met in Canton and decided to join the KMT for the purpose of creating a 'united front' to stand against the northern warlords.1 In 1923 Dr. Sun tried to seek foreign help to continue conducting his revolution but only USSR was willing to assist. He met with Adolph Joffe, a representative of USSR, and in January 1923, they issued a statement that laid down the conditions for the Communist International (note: a political body set up by USSR) to help Sun to achieve his goal of unifying China. One condition was to permit USSR to send Michael Borodin to Canton in September 1923 to become the advisor of the KMT. Under Borodin's suggestion, KMT was reorganized by following a structure used by the the Communist in Russia. Also, Communists in China who were willing to take an oath of obedience to the KMT might be accepted into the party in individual capacity. With the help of the Russian, KMT now could train its own army using the Soviet methods in the newly established Whampoa Academy (黃埔軍校) set up in Canton. Dr. Sun died in 1925 and Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石) became the party leader. In 1926 he mounted the 'Northern Expedition' that eventually unified China in 1927. But before that, in late 1926 when the KMT set up the capital in Hankow (漢口), a split in the KMT party between the left wing and right wing occurred. While the right wing under the leadership of Chiang was eager to seek the support of the middle class that included commercial and banking community in Shanghai, the left wing (Communists) were trying to turn KMT's Nationalist revolution into a socialist revolution. In April 1927 Chiang, ignoring the Communists, set up a government in Nanking (南京) to rival the left wing who were still gathering in Hankow. In Shanghai Chiang carried out a purge of the Communists and that involved several hundred thousand deaths. Shortly afterwards, the situation in Hankow was also not favourable to the left wing. When the Communists cause was eventually suppressed and died down, Borodin left China.2 (to be continued)

1.United States, Department of State. The China White Paper-August 1949. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1967, page 42.
2.Ibid., page 44

2010年1月11日 星期一

The China White Paper 1949 (X)

Chapter 2 of The China White Paper starts at page 38. It is a review of Kuomintang (KMT) and Chinese Communist relations during the period between 1921 and 1944.1 According to the White Paper, various internal factors in China had played a role in the development of American policy towards China. One factor was the struggle for supremacy between the KMT and the Communists. According to America's understanding, the ideological basis of the KMT was developed by Dr. Sun Yat-sen before 1911. It became more elaborate later when Dr. Sun tried to incorporate Western thoughts into China's situation. Dr. Sun thought that revolution in China needed to go through three stages. First was the military unification, second was political tutelage and the third stage was constitutionalism. According to the White Paper, Dr. Sun "never subscribed to Communists ideas such as class struggle" although he accepted military aid and advice from the Third International (USSR). At this stage (early 1920s), the Chinese Communist based their action on the "Leninist theories of imperialism and revolution in semi-colonial countries".2 The ultimate goal of Chinese Communism was to achieve a classless communist society. But during the interim, they were prepared to "form temporary understandings, even alliances, with the bourgeois democracy". The White Paper noted that in theory, the Communist party would ally itself with all groups or classes that it considered 'progressive'. This White Paper also noted that in the early development of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its tactics had "steered a precarious course between the danger of 'right opportunism,' through which the initiative is lost, and that of 'left extremism,' which according to Communist thinking, prematurely attempts to turn the 'bourgeois-democratic revolution' into a socialist revolution and thus causes the Communists to lose their influence in the 'bourgeois' revolution before the socialist revolution can be successfully prosecuted."3 (to be continued)

1.United States, Department of State. The China White Paper-August 1949. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1967, page 38.
2. Ibid., page 40
3. Ibid., page 41

2010年1月10日 星期日

The China White Paper 1949 (IX)

In 1943, the US on top of relinquishing the extraterritorial rights in China, also repealed the Chinese Exclusion Acts. On December 17, 1943, the US President Roosevelt signed an Act that removed the long-standing legislation that discriminated against Chinese. An annual Chinese immigration quota was established, and as such Chinese could be naturalized as American citizens. According to the White Paper the purpose of this act was to give "additional proof that [the US regards] China not only as a partner in waging war but . . . as a partner in days of peace"1 In 1943, on two occasions, the US recognized the status of China as one of the Great Powers. One occasion was, on the insistence of the US, China was "included as a signatory, together with the UK, the USSR, and the US, of the Declaration of Four Nations on General Security, signed in Moscow on October 30, 1943 which recognized the right and responsibility of China to participate jointly with the other great powers in the . . . establishment of machinery for post-war international operation". One implication of this decision was that China became one of the sponsoring Powers of the UN Conference met at San Francisco in 1945 and later China was granted a permanent seat in the Security Council. The other occasion took place on December 1, 1943 when Chiang Kai-shek was invited to participate in the Cairo Declaration.2 (to be continued)

1.United States, Department of State. The China White Paper-August 1949. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1967, page 37.
2. Ibid., page 37.

2010年1月8日 星期五


"日本地名讀音詞典"是由中國大陸學林出版社出版. 對我來說, 要正確地讀出用漢字寫出的日本地方名是頗困難的事, 因為一個日文漢字可以有幾個讀音. 恰好這詞典可以幫到我. 它有兩個方法排列出地方名, 一個是把日語漢字地方名當作中文讀出來, 用漢語拼音寫出, 然後由 A到 z 排列. (為了方便不懂漢語拼音使用者,它另設有漢字筆劃檢字表. 我常常利用這方法). 這本詞典另一排列地名的方法是用日文五十音順, 那即是說, 如果你知道某一個地方的日文讀音, 就可以查出它的漢字寫法. 這詞典共有三個附錄. 附錄1 是總筆劃檢字表. 附錄2 是日本常用漢字與簡體漢字對照表. 附錄3 是日本都,道,府,縣,市,地方行政表. 這詞典於2005年出版, 有520頁.

2010年1月5日 星期二


"日本姓名詞典"是由中國大陸商務印書館出版. 對我來說, 要正確地說出日本人用漢字寫出來的姓和名是困難的事, 因為一個漢字可以有幾個讀音. 恰好這詞典可以幫到我. 它分開姓和名二部分. 總共收集了日本姓七萬條, 名四萬多條. 它用日語漢字筆劃排列. 姓氏目錄有由一劃到二十五劃以上. 名字亦是由一劃到二十五劃以上. 詞典還有兩個附錄, 附錄1 是日本名用漢字的讀法, 附錄2 是日中簡化字對照表. 都頗有用. 這詞典於1982年出版, 有1662頁, 編者是史群.

2010年1月3日 星期日


Recently Asahi News reported the following:

空中を飛ぶ米粒ほどの物体を、目にもとまらぬ速さでピンセットを動かして捕まえる高速ロボットシステムを、東京大の石川正俊教授らの研究チームが開発した。チームは「この技術を応用すれば、将来、飛び回るハエを捕まえるロボットをつくれるはず」という。 ピンセットは長さ20センチのステンレス製。高速で開閉できる。実験では、直径6ミリのプラスチック球を秒速約1メートルではね上げた。千分の3秒ごとに位置情報をつかむ独自の高速画像処理技術を使い、空中を飛ぶプラスチック球を15%の確率でつかめた。今後も改良を重ね、成功率のアップをめざす。 工場で部品の組み立てなどをする産業ロボットの性能向上をめざした研究の一環。球の存在を認識してからつかむまで、0.1秒しかかからない。石川教授は「目にもとまらぬスピードで次々と製品を生み出すロボットの開発につなげ、日本の産業の空洞化に歯止めをかけたい」と話している。

Professor Ishikawa's research team in Tokyo University had developed a high-speed robot system that could move tweezers to capture small flying objects like the rice grain flying in the air at the speed that even eyes could not see. The team said, "If this technology is applied, in future it is possible to make robot that could capture a fly that flies around". Tweezers were made of stainless steels of 20 centimeters in length. It is possible to open and shut at high speed. In the experiment, a plastic ball of 6 milli in diameter projected up at a speed of about one meter per second. Using the original high-speed image processing technology, information on the location of the ball was gripped in 3/1000 seconds, and the probability of catching this plastic ball that flew in the air was 15% . Improvement will be made repeatedly in the future, aiming at improving the success rate. Part of research was aimed at improving performance in industrial robot used to assemble parts at factories. It took only 0.1 seconds, from knowing to gripping the ball. Professor Ishikawa was saying that, "I want to tie the development to invention of robots that can do manufacturing at high speed one after another, thus preventing Japan's industry from being emptied of all its contents".

From the above, it is obvious that Japan is working hard in producing high-technological products in order to maintain its leading role in high-technology research and development.

2010年1月2日 星期六


Recently the Mainichi News reported the following:

 失業者らの年越しを支援するために、東京都が渋谷区の国立オリンピック記念青少年総合センターに設置した「公設派遣村」は1、2日も新たな宿泊者が訪れ、831人になった。宿泊者らは屋根の下で迎える新年にホッとした表情を見せながらも、4日の閉所を目前に控え、相談員らのアドバイスに熱心に耳を傾けていた。 宿泊者の多くは4日以降の見通しが立たず、不安を抱えている。半年間路上生活をした後に再就職した家電メーカーが昨年末倒産し、再び野宿を強いられた男性(51)もその一人。何度も生活保護申請を断られてきた。「自立するまで保護を受けたいが、無理ならまた野宿だ」と話した。 都は3日、宿泊者全員に改めて生活相談を行い、宿泊所の確保など4日以降の対応を決定する方針だ。

The "Public dispatch village" in Tokyo set up in the National Olympic Memorial Youth Center in Shibuya Ward for the purpose of supporting the unemployed in welcoming the new year was visited by new visitors up to 831 people on the first and second day. Those who stayed in the center had showed a relieved expression at receiving the new year under the roof, although they listened to the consultants' advice ardently, they refrained from talking about the closure of this place on the 4th in the near future. Many of those who stayed did not know their prospect after the fourth, and were holding uneasiness. Among them was a man (51) who got re-employed and worked in an appliance making company after living in the street for half a year, but at the end of last year this company went bankrupt, and he would be forced to sleep in the open again. His public assistance application had been refused many times. It was said, "If that was impossible, it means sleeping in the open again although I want to receive protection until I can rely on myself". In the capital on the 3rd day, it was scheduled that all the consultation of life would be done on all who stayed, and would decide on their future lodgings after the fourth.

In only just a small section in Tokyo, there are already so many homeless people. Does it reflect the poor economic situation in Japan?

2010年1月1日 星期五


我一向有用傳統日曆的習慣. 每天從它摘下一張, 官感上可以覺到日子實實在在地流逝. 今天掛起厚厚的2010新日曆, 摘除封面, 看到它的第一張, 真實地感覺到新的一年已開始. 俗語有謂 "一元復始, 萬象更新", 在此祝願世界和平.