2018年12月27日 星期四

My visit to Tokyo 2018 (10)

Tokyo Trains Station



The Tokyo trains station was introduced by the Tokyo Travel Guide in the following sentences:


The Tokyo train station is the heart of train transportation in Japan. The JR from this station is connected to all parts of Japan, from Hokkaido (北海道) in the north to Kyushu (九州) in the south.

According to JR’s web-site, Japan's main islands of Honshu, Kyushu and Hokkaido are served by a network of high-speed train lines that connect Tokyo with most of the country's major cities. Japan's high-speed trains (bullet trains) are called shinkansen (新幹線) and are operated by Japan Railways (JR).

JR connects the Tokyo Station to Hokkaido

The shinkansen network consists of multiple lines, among which the Tokaido Shinkansen (Tokyo - Nagoya - Kyoto - Osaka) is the oldest and most popular. All shinkansen lines (except the Akita and Yamagata Shinkansen) run on tracks that are exclusively built for and used by shinkansen trains. Most lines are served by multiple train categories, ranging from the fastest category that stops only at major stations to the slowest category that stops at every station along the way.


2018年12月24日 星期一

Year-end party of a company: the real feeling was that more than 40 percent "don't want to participate "…


Recently the NHK News on-line reported the following:
会社の忘年会 本音は「参加したくない」4割以上に…
20181219 412

年末が近づき、会社などで忘年会が開かれる時期になりましたが、20代から40代のサラリーマンの4割以上が、本音では参加したくないと考えているという調査結果がまとまりました。

このアンケート調査は、製薬大手の「田辺三菱製薬」が先月、全国の20代から40代の会社員の男女、合わせて500人を対象にインターネットを通じて行いました。

会社の忘年会への参加について、本音ではどう思っているか聞いたところ、「参加したくない」が15%、「どちらかと言うと参加したくない」が29%で、消極的な回答をした人が合わせて44%に上りました。

女性のほうがその割合が高い傾向で、20代の女性が50%、30代の女性が48%となっています。

参加したくない理由については、「気を使うので疲れる」、「会社の人より友達と飲みたい」などといった声が寄せられたということです。

一方、「参加したい」は29%、「どちらかと言うと参加したい」は26%でした。

調査を行った田辺三菱製薬では「せっかく開催している忘年会にネガティブな気持ちで参加している人たちが一定数いることがうかがえる。会社側としても何らかの対応策が必要になるのではないか」と話しています。


Translation

As the year end was approaching, it was the time to hold a year-end party by a company. A survey result showed that more than 40 percent of the office workers aged between twenties and forties did not to want to join the gathering.

A questionnaire survey was done in the whole country last month by the "Tanabe Mitsubishi Medicine Manufacturing", a major medicine manufacturing company, targeting at 500 male and female office workers aged between twenties and forties through the internet.

When asked how they really feel about participation in a year-end party of a company, 15% answered "I don't want" to participate; 29% said that "if anything I don't want to participate”, the people who answered negatively added up to 44% in total.

The lady had the tendency of high percentage in this respect; ladies in their twenties was 50%, in the thirties was 48%.

About the reasons why one did not want to participate, "I had to pay attention so I get tired." "I would like to drink with a friend more than a person of the company"; voices such as these could be heard.

On the other hand, "I'd like to participate" was 29%, "if anything I'd like to participate" was 26%.

Tanabe Mitsubishi Medicine Manufacturing which held the survey said that "It reflects that there are certain number of people participating with negative feelings the year-end party which was organized with great efforts. For the company it also needs to do some countermeasures."

          I am interested to note how this survey result would stand if compared with similar surveys done in other periods.

2018年12月23日 星期日

My visit to Tokyo 2018 (9)

Yasukuni Jinja (source NHK)
The wooden pillar outside the Yasukuni Jinja















On the 23rd I visited the Yasukuni Jinja by Metro. As indicated in the road side map below, it was inside the Chiyoda district.


After leaving the metro station I walked 150 meters and reached the Jinja. The entrance was marked by an over ten feet tall wooden pillar engraved with the words 靖国神社 (Yasukuni Jinja). After walking pass this pillar, there was the first Torii (鳥居), it was very large. Torii was a gateway at the entrance of a Shinto shrine. After passing this Torri, there was a bronze statue of Omura Masujiro (大村益次郎)(1824-1869) who had played an important role in the inauguration of this Jinja which was dedicated to the spirit of those who died for Japan in wars in the Meiji restoration and after. The plaque at the foot of the statue explained the background on the building of  this Jinja.


The plaque at the foot of the statue



This Jinja had always been a topic for political arguments between Japan and China in recent years.  China often argued that current Japanese political leaders should not go there to pay their respects to the military leaders who were sentenced to death due to war crimes committed in WWII.  After knowing the historical background of this Jinja, I began to understand the reasons why it was logical for the Japanese to use this Jinja to honor all military leaders perished in WWII.

2018年12月22日 星期六

Egypt " discovered the grave of the Shinto priest who served Pharaoh" : the floor had a hole


Recently the NHK News on-line reported the following:
エジプトで“ファラオに仕えた神官の墓発見” 床下に穴も
20181216 715

エジプト考古省は、首都カイロの南で、4400年前にファラオに仕えた神官の墓を発見したと発表し、今後、墓の内部からひつぎや副葬品などさらなる発見が期待されるとしています。

エジプトのアナニ考古相は15日、カイロの南にあるサッカラでエジプトの調査隊が4400年前、古代エジプトのファラオに仕えた神官の墓を発見したと発表しました。

公開された墓は奥行きが10メートル、幅3メートル、高さも3メートルで、壁には、多数の像やヒエログリフと呼ばれる文字が彫られています。

また、赤茶色や青色など当時の鮮やかな色彩が保たれています。エジプト考古省によりますと、墓の床下には5つの穴があり、神官のひつぎや副葬品などが収められている可能性があるということで、今後、発掘作業を進めるということです。

アナニ考古相は「新しい発見で、保存状態が非常によく、色彩も残っている」と述べ、高い価値があると強調しました。

Translation


The Egyptian Archaeology Ministry announced that a grave of the Shinto priest who served Pharaoh 4,400 years ago was found at the south of Cairo the capital, and it was assumed that from now on further discovery of a coffin and burial items from the grave could be expected.

On the 15th Anany the Egyptian archaeology minister announced that an Egyptian research group in Saqqara located at the south of Cairo had found a grave of the Shinto priest who served Pharaoh in ancient Egypt 4,400 years ago.

The grave opened was 10 meters in depth, 3 meters in width and 3 meters in height; on a wall a lot of images and the so called hieroglyphs characters were carved.

Also, red brown and blue vivid color of those days were kept. According to the Egyptian archaeology ministry there were 5 holes on the floor of the grave, and it was said that it was possible that Shinto priest's coffin and burial items were kept. It was supposed that they would advance the finding work from now on.

Anany the archaeology minister stated that " in this new discovery, the preservation state is very good, and the color is also left behind" and stressed that it had a high value.

              It is nice to know that the Egyptian has made such a discovery.

2018年12月21日 星期五

My visit to Tokyo 2018 (8)


On the 22nd I visited Akihabara (秋葉原) in Tokyo, a place that was famous for having many shops selling electric goods. The Tokyo Metro Guide introduced it in the following manner:





The location map of Akibhara





Here the most popular street is the Central Street (中央通り), there were shops along this street, mostly were either restaurants or shops selling electrical appliance. As there were a lot of home appliances available to choose, it had attracted a lot of overseas customers, one noticeable ethic group was the Chinese from the mainland. They carried suitcases to shop. Some shops were operated by mainlanders who were targeting at these customers. Some of these Chinese shops also sold brand name medicine or cosmetic that were famous among the mainlanders.

One of the big name in selling the electrical items here is the "BIC CAMERA". This company had a 7- floor building. It sold all kinds of home use items.


2018年12月17日 星期一

My visit to Tokyo 2018 (7)


Pamphlet of the National Museum of
Nature and Science
The location map of the National
Museum of Nature and Science















The National Museum of Nature and Science is inside the Ueno Park. Beside this science museum, there are several other museums in the vicinity.

You have to pay a small amount of entrance fee for visiting the National Museum of Nature and Science (expect for senior citizen or tourists aged over 65). I enjoyed the many exhibits inside the National Museum, in particular the exhibits about human evolution. I liked “Lucy” which was presented in casts of the original fossil assembly, and also its recreated model with muscle and skin positioned next to cast fossil assembly. 

“Lucy” was discovered in 1974 in Africa, near the village Hadar in the Awash Valley of the Afar Triangle in Ethiopia. The “Lucy” specimen was an early australopithecine, dated to be about 3.2 million years ago. Its skeleton showed a small skull akin to that of non-hominin apes, it had evidence of a walking-gait that was bipedal and upright, like that of humans (and other hominins). The original fossils were kept in Ethiopia.


"Lucy"
Museum description of "Lucy"

2018年12月15日 星期六

China lifted food import restriction on rice from Niigata


Recently the NHK News on-line reported the following
中国食品輸入規制 新潟米解除へ
1129日 1014

東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故の後、中国が続けている日本産食品の輸入規制をめぐって、中国が新潟県で生産されたコメの輸入を再開する方針を固め、日本政府に通達してきたことが分かりました。

福島第一原発の事故のあと、中国政府は、放射性物質による汚染が懸念されるとして、福島、宮城、東京など10の都県で生産されたすべての農産物や水産物、それに家畜などに与える飼料の輸入を停止しています。

これについて日本政府は、安全性が確保された食品のみが流通しており、懸念は当たらないとして規制を解除するよう重ねて求めていて、安倍総理大臣も先月の日中首脳会談で、習近平国家主席に対し前向きな対応を求め、中国側は「科学的な評価に基づき緩和することを積極的に考える」と表明していました。

こうした中、中国が、輸入規制を実施している10の都県のうち新潟県で生産されたコメの輸入を再開する方針を固め、日本側に通達してきたことが政府関係者の話で分かりました。

日本政府としては、残るほかの規制についても、できるだけ早期に解除されるよう、引き続き、中国側に働きかけていくことにしています

Translation

Concerning the import restriction imposed by China on food produced in Japan  enforced after the Tokyo Electric Power Daiichi Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, it was found out that China had resumed the policy that strengthened the importation of rice produced in Niigata-ken, and the Japanese Government was informed accordingly.

It was supposed that after an accident in Daiichi Fukushima nuclear power plant, for fear of pollution by radioactive materials, the Chinese government had suspended the importation of all marine and agricultural products from Fukushima, Miyagi and Tokyo etc. 10 prefectures, together with the feed for the cattle etc.

About this, for the Japanese Government, because only the food which safety had been secured would be allowed to circulate, there was no need for worries, thus it asked for the cancellation of the restriction. Abe Prime Minister at last month's Japanese-Chinese summit, toward Chairman Xi Jinping, asked for a forward-looking positive response; the Chinese side expressed that "consideration would be actively taken to ease it based on scientific evaluation."

Under such circumstances, talks among people related to the government showed that among the 10 prefectures/capital with import restriction, China had strengthened the policy which resumed the importation of the rice produced in Niigata-ken and had notified the Japanese side.

For the Japanese Government, it would continue to encourage China to start work to ease the remaining restrictions as early as possible.

        Its seems that the Sino-Japanese relation is improving.

2018年12月12日 星期三

My visit to Tokyo 2018 (6)


          On the 21st, I visited the Ueno Park. The Tokyo Travel Guide introduces the park in the following manner:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              


This park is conveniently located next to three train stations: the Ueno Station (the Metro Line), the JR Yamanote Line station, and the Keisei Line station. At the south entrance of the park there is a small restaurant where one buy food and drinks. Immediately outside this restaurant is an open space with tables and chairs where one can freely sit to enjoy the sunshine and the park’s green environment.  The zoo is at the western side of the park while several museums and art galleries are located at the eastern part of the park. 



Lotus is grown in the Shinobazu pond (located at the south of the zoo) and carp fish up to two feet long can be seen swimming under the lotus leaves. In the zoo one can see the panda after paying an entrance fee. For me the attraction of the Park is the different art galleries and museums nearby, for example the National Museum of Nature and Science (国立科学博物館), the National Western Arts Gallery (国立西洋美術館), the Tokyo Bunka Kaikan (東京文化会館), the Ueno Royal Museum(上野の森美術館), the Tokyo Metropolitan Arts Museum(東京都美術館), and the Tokyo National Museum (東京国立博物館) etc.

The lotus pond


2018年12月8日 星期六

Micro plastics: Detected in 90 percent of the rivers investigated


Recently the NHK News on-line reported the following:
マイクロプラスチック 調査した河川の9割で検出
20181125 445

生態系への影響が懸念されている小さなプラスチックのごみ「マイクロプラスチック」について、東京理科大学と愛媛大学の研究グループが全国の29の河川を調べた結果、9割にあたる26の河川から見つかりました。調査を行った研究者は、ごみの削減など陸での対策の強化が必要だと指摘しています。

「マイクロプラスチック」は大きさが5ミリ以下のプラスチックのごみで、東京理科大学と愛媛大学の研究グループは平成27年8月からことし5月にかけて、全国の29の河川の36地点で水に「マイクロプラスチック」が含まれているか調べました。

その結果、千葉県の大堀川や神奈川県の鶴見川など9割にあたる26の河川の31地点で「マイクロプラスチック」が見つかったということです。研究グループによりますと、多くはレジ袋や発泡スチロールなどに使われている素材の破片で、上流域の人口密度が高い地点ほど「マイクロプラスチック」の密度が高い傾向だったということです。

「マイクロプラスチック」は、国などの調査で日本の周辺海域に広く分布していることが分かっています。

調査を行った東京理科大学理工学部の片岡智哉助教は「これまではプラスチック製品が海に出てから小さくなったと想定されていたが、陸域でも微細化が進んでいることが分かった。ごみの削減など陸での対策の強化が必要だ」と話しています。

Translation

About the small plastic trash, the "micro plastics" which was worried to have influenced the ecosystem, a study group from the Tokyo University of Science and Ehime University checked 29 rivers in the whole country, and they were found in 26 rivers and representing 90 percent of the total. The researchers who did the investigation pointed out that measures to reduce trash on land needed reinforcement.

"Micro plastics" were plastic trash with a size less than 5 millimeters. A study group from Tokyo University of Science and Ehime University examined whether "micro plastics" existed in water at 36 spots in 29 rivers in the whole country from August 2015 to May of this year.

As a result, it was said that at Obori river in Chiba-ken and Tsurumi River in Kanagawa-ken "micro plastics" were found at 31 spots in 26 rivers, equaling to 90 percent. According to the study group, most of them were fragments of materials used in disposal shopping bag and styrene foam. It was said that in the upstream region, the more densely populated the spot, the more tendency of finding "micro plastics".

About "micro plastics”, through investigating them in the country, we knew that they were widely distributed over the sea area around Japan.

Tomoya Kataoka the assistant professor of Tokyo Science University department of science and engineering which did the investigation said " up to now it is assumed that plastic produces would become smaller after going out into the sea, but now it is found out that fragmentation also developed on land. Measures to reduce trash on land need reinforcement."

So, “micro plastics” is becoming an issue in environmental protection.

2018年12月5日 星期三

My visit to Tokyo 2018 (5)




The Tsukiji Hongwanji Temple is near the Tsukiji Outer Market. This Buddhist temple is regarded by the Japanese as an important cultural property and the Tokyo Travel Guide has the following to say:


There are over one hundred seats inside the main hall of the temple and tourists are free to enter to sit down and watch the regular ritual proceeding. The architectural design of the temple is impressive. Outside the temple but within its parameter (which is quite big), there are several statues that have important relationship to the history of the temple.


2018年12月4日 星期二

A US university that a Chinese researcher once enrolled had started investigation: a baby with genome editing


Recently the NHK News on-line reported the following:
ゲノム編集で赤ちゃん 中国の研究者が在籍した米大学が調査
20181130 942

中国の研究者が、「ゲノム編集」で遺伝情報を書き換えた赤ちゃんが産まれたと主張していることを受けて、この研究者がかつて在籍したアメリカの大学は、恩師にあたる教授が関係していないか、調査を始めたことを明らかにしました。

中国の南方科技大学の賀建奎准教授は、父親がエイズウイルスに感染しているカップルの受精卵に対して、ゲノム編集でエイズウイルスに感染しないよう遺伝情報を書き換え、双子が誕生したと主張しています。

これについて、賀准教授が2010年まで博士課程で在籍した南部テキサス州にあるライス大学は29日、NHKの取材に対し、大学に在籍する生命工学の教授が関係していないか、調査を始めたことを明らかにしました。

この教授は、賀准教授がライス大学で博士号を取得した際の恩師にあたり、共同での論文もあります。

また、AP通信は、この教授は中国でゲノム編集を受精卵に対して行う計画について、参加するカップルに同意を得る際に立ち会ったと伝えています。

ライス大学は、大学としては知るところではなかったが、どこで行われたとしても、科学研究の指針や倫理基準に違反しているとしており、教授が関係していないか、詳しく調べるとしています。

 Translation

Chinese researchers, after noting a researcher insisted that a baby had code-word rewritten through "genome editing" was born, had begun to investigate the American university which this researcher had once enrolled in order to find out whether the professor who taught this researcher was involved.

Associate professor He Jiankui of the Southern University of Science and Technology was insisting that towards a fertilized egg of a couple with the father infected by AIDS virus, he had rewritten the code-word using genome editing so that it would not be infected by AIDS virus,  and that a twin was born.

About this on the 29th , in responded to a NHK coverage, the Rice University in Southern State of Texas which was enrolled by associate professor He JianKui in a Doctoral course until 2010, had made it clear that it began to investigate whether or not the teaching professor of biotechnology in the university was involved.

This professor was the former teacher of associate professor Gu when the latter acquired a doctorate at Rice University; they also had joint papers.

Furthermore, the AP News reported that about the plan of using genome editing in a fertilized egg in China, this professor had witnessed the moment when the consent of the participating couple was given.

For the Rice University, nothing had come to its attention as a university; but no matter where the editing was performed, it was assumed to have violated the guidelines of scientific research and ethical standards, and a detailed investigation was supposed to examine whether the professor was related.

              It is shocking to know that this researcher has violated the guidelines of scientific research and ethical standards.

2018年12月2日 星期日

My visit to Tokyo 2018 (4)



Tsukiji Outer Market, Tokyo

On the 20th I visited the Tsukiji Outer market, it was next to the main market where bidding by wholesalers for all kinds of seafood were held everyday. It was at the outer market that tourists gathered. The Tokyo Tourist guide book has the following to say about the Tsukiji Outer Market:




At the outer market, there were a lot of small stalls selling all kinds of seafood, from crab to shrimp, from eel to tuna. I found the that the outer market was consisting of many temporary stores. Apart from selling fresh seafood, some were small stalls selling cooked food such as Ra-men and sashimi. A lot of tourists came it everyday. 

If you want to know the cultural and social importance of the Tsukiji market, please read Theodore Bestor’s book entitled “Tsukiji: The Fish market at the Center of the World” of 2004 by Berkeley: University of California Press. This book is about Japanese markets, it explores the current of collusion, favoritism, and efficiency in the markets. Also, it touches on the relationship between trade cartel and government bureaucracies, and patterns of insider trading.

According to Bestor, his book is an ethnography of trade and economic institutions as they are embedded in and shaped by the cultural and social currents of Japanese life. Also, he suggests that Tsukiji represented the national cultural identity that cloaked cuisine; it was also an international market connecting global fishing industries.


2018年11月30日 星期五

My visit to Tokyo in 2018 (3)

Location of Telecom Square in Narita Airport


For me it is important to have access to the Internet and phone service while visiting foreign lands. The Internet enables me to check e-mails etc. and to read maps handily. The phone enables me to reach for urgent assistance in case of an emergency such as an accident while traveling alone.


When I arrived at the Terminal Two of the Narita airport, I immediately went to its basement to buy a SIM card. There were many phone card shops, but I bought the prepaid data SIM card from the Telecom Square. The SIM card was for Data and voice. I chose this company because the price seemed reasonable and that not many companies offered data and voice prepaid SIM cards. This company had seven airport counters at Japan’s 7 main international airport. Once you were outside the airport, it should be difficult to find a similar SIM card.


The lady of this shop had provided me a good service because she helped me to insert the card into my phone at my request, and tested the result for me before leaving.

2018年11月28日 星期三

My visit to Tokyo in 2018 (2)



There were several ways to travel from the Narita Airport (成田空港) to Tokyo downtown (首都圏 the metropolitan area). I chose the railway line, the so-called Keisei Express Railway(京成高速鉄道). It took slightly over 40 minutes to travel from the Narita Airport to Ueno (上野)Station in Tokyo downtown. Ueno Station was a big station for interchange. After getting off from the Keisei Express Railway in Ueno, one could change line and go to all parts of Tokyo downtown and beyond by using the JR lines. The JR line inside Tokyo downtown was called the JR Yamanote Line(山手線). It was a circular line, traveling in one big circle inside the metropolitan area among all big districts for example Ueno, Akihabara(秋葉原), Ikebukuro(池袋), Nippori (日暮里) and many others. Apart from the JR Yamanote Line, there was the Tokyo Metro lines and the Toei Subway, they were useful for traveling around the Metropolitan Area. To put it simply, one can travel to almost all major districts in Tokyo downtown by merely going into a JR Yamanote line station, or a Tokyo Metro line station, or the Toei subway because all lines were inter-connected at certain stations, either about the ground or below.

Metro Lines and Toei Lines Map

JR Lines map





To make my travelling easier, I purchased two kinds of pre-paid IC cards, respectively they were the Suica Card and the Pasmo Card. They were accepted at all stations (the Yamanote line, the Metro lines and the Toei Subway) which could automatically debit the right amount of traveling fee for a trip using their lines.  I bought these two cards at the basement of Terminal Two of the Narita airport when I arrived there, before going into the Tokyo downtown. Apart from traveling, these two cards were accepted for payments in some retailer shops and supermarkets.

2018年11月27日 星期二

My visit to Tokyo in 2018 (1)


My air ticket to Tokyo




Through Airbnb I rented an apartment in this building
Airbnb advertisement


                                                   

Last month I visited Tokyo for about 20 days, from mid-October to early November. I chose to live in a min-paku (民泊=みんぱく) for two reasons. First, it was cheaper than living in a hotel; second there was a kitchen and a washing machine inside, both were important for an overseas stay of over 20 days. My apartment had two beds and it costed me less than HK$12,000 in total. I booked the min-paku through the Airbnb. The online booking was simple and easy. One point to note was that you should pick the one with a proper licence. A new accommodation law was enforced recently in Tokyo so they all min-paku had to register with the authorities. After booking the accommodation, I book the air ticket on line. I picked the Hongkong Express because it was one of the the cheapest, the air ticket was about HK$2600 round trip with one luggage weighted up to 20 kg, and one hand held up to 7 kg (I flied from Hong Kong to Tokyo Narita airport).

This was my first time to fly with a low-cost jet. One thing to note about low-cost jet was that you were not allowed to eat or drink your own stuff in the plane except those which were provided by plane en route.

I had a good impression on Hongkong Express because it opened its airport checking-in counters early and that the staff were efficient in handling the passengers. I did not see a long queue of passengers waiting to get the boarding tickets.

2018年11月25日 星期日

"Antibacterial medicine" did not work for cold - half of the people made mistakes


Recently the NHK News on line reported that following:
かぜに「抗菌薬」は効きません 半数が誤認
20181111 454

かぜで医療機関を受診した際、本来は効果がない抗生物質などの抗菌薬を処方してほしいと考える人は30%余りいるという調査結果がまとまりました。

抗菌薬の不適切な使用は薬が効かない「耐性菌」を増やすことにつながり、専門家は「正しい知識を普及していく必要がある」と話しています。

抗菌薬は、細菌には効果がある一方で、かぜやインフルエンザなど、ウイルスが原因の病気には効かないことが分かっていますが、かぜに処方されるケースがあり、薬が効かない耐性菌を増やすことにつながっていると指摘されています。

国立国際医療研究センター病院は、インターネットを利用して全国の10代から60代までの一般の男女721人に対して、抗菌薬に対するアンケート調査を行いました。

その結果、「抗菌薬がどのような病気に有用か」という質問に対して、「かぜ」と答えた人が49.9%、「インフルエンザ」と答えた人は49.2%と、ほぼ半数の人が誤って認識していることが分かりました。また、「かぜで受診した時に処方してほしい薬」として、30.1%の人が「抗菌薬」と答えました。

調査を行った国立国際医療研究センター病院の具芳明医師は「患者が強く希望すると医師も処方せざるをえない場合があり、一般の人にも正しい知識を普及していく必要がある」と話しています。

Translation

About visiting a medical agency due to suffering a cold, a survey result gathered showed that antibacterial medicine which was in fact ineffective for that had been thought about by 30% of the people and wanted it to be prescribed.

Regarding the situation that, due to improper use of antibacterial medicine, medicine was not effective and led to an increase in "resistant bacteria", a specialist said that "it is necessary to spread the correct knowledge".

While it was known that antibacterial medicine was only effective in bacteria and was not effective against virus sickness such as cold and flu, still there were cases that it was prescribed for a cold. It was pointed out that this was related to an increase of resistant bacteria that made the medicine ineffective.

The National Center for Global Health and Medicine did a questionnaire survey on antibacterial medicine on 721 ordinary men and women aged from teens to sixties in the whole country through the Internet.

In the survey, when people were asked "What kind of sickness was antibacterial medicine useful for?”, 49.9 % said the “cold" while 49.2% answered "the flu”; it was found out that nearly half of people had made a mistake in their understanding. Furthermore, when asked about "the medicine you want to be prescribed when seeing a doctor because of a cold", 30.1 % of the people answered "antibacterial medicine".

Doctor Gu Yoshiaki of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine which conducted the survey said that "facing the strong hope of a patient, there are situations that a doctor can't sometimes help but prescribe; it's necessary to spread what is right for the general public."

              So, to educate members of the public is important in doing away in-correction understanding.