2018年8月13日 星期一

Private universities which had difficult financial outlook to stop student admission and to disperse school incorporation- the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology


Recently the NHK News On-line reported the following:
経営難の私立大は募集停止や学校法人解散に 文科省
2018731 422

経営が厳しい私立大学が増える中、文部科学省はこれらの大学に対し債務超過の危険性などが確認できた場合、学生の募集停止や学校法人の解散といった指導を行うと通知しました。

現在、全国におよそ600校ある私立大学は少子化の影響などで全体の4割が定員割れするなど、経営状況が厳しくなっています。このため、文部科学省はこれら私立大学に対してより踏み込んだ経営指導を行うことを通知しました。

具体的には、まず大学経営が3年連続で赤字となったり借入金が預貯金より多くなったりした場合、文部科学省の委員会が大学が提出した経営改善計画などをもとに3年間をめどに改善に向けた助言を行うとしています。

しかし、それでも経営が改善せず債務超過に陥る危険性が確認された場合は、学生の募集停止や学校法人の解散といった指導を行うとしています。

大学経営に詳しい東京大学大学総合教育研究センターの小林雅之教授は「私学助成金という税金が投入されている以上、国は指導や助言は行わなければならない。一方で、教育の問題は経営とは別で大学の自主性は尊重されるべきだ。文部科学省による画一的な指導は問題になるだけだ」と話しています。

Translation

As the number of private universities that had severe management problem was increasing, when the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology could confirm the danger of an excessive debt in these universities, it would give notification by providing directives such as the stopping of student recruitment, and the dismissal of school incorporation.

Due to the influence of a low birthrate, at present among the approximately 600 private universities in the whole country approximately 40% fell below the schools quota on the number students recruited, and the situation became severe for the management. For that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology would notify the management by giving out directives and to involve itself with such private universities.

In the case that a university management had started with a deficit for the first 3 years continuously in which a borrowing loan became substantially bigger than its deposit, then based on an improved management plan etc. submitted by this university, a committee of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology would supposedly give an advice to them to improve up to a period 3 more years.

But if the management still could not improve, and a danger of falling into an excessive debt was confirmed, it was supposed that a directive would be given to stop student recruitment and to dismiss the school incorporation.

Prof. Masayuki Kobayashi of the University of Tokyo’s consolidated university education research center who was conversant with university management said that “On top of the fact that private school grant were inputs from tax, a country has to do guidance and advice. On the one hand the educational problem is different from management, and the autonomy of a university should be respected. The wish of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to have a uniform guidance will exactly be the problem."

So, the Ministry of Education in Japan has a hard time in dealing with those private universities that have difficulties in continuing with their operations.

2018年8月8日 星期三

Tourist accommodation in Hiroshima and Okayama: 280,000 people canceled reservation, income decreased by 5,500 million yen


Recently the NHK News On-line reported the following:
広島と岡山の宿泊施設 予約キャンセル28万人 55億円減収
2018725 1426

記録的な豪雨が発生して以降、広島県や岡山県にある宿泊施設の予約をキャンセルした人は、推計で合わせておよそ28万人に上り、55億円ほどの減収額が見込まれることがわかりました。

広島県と岡山県は、記録的な豪雨が発生して以降に県内にあるホテルや旅館などの宿泊施設の一部を抽出してキャンセルの状況を調査し、県全体での件数を推計しました。

その結果、予約のキャンセル数は、広島県内では800の施設でおよそ18万人、岡山県内では749の施設でおよそ10万人で、両県で合わせておよそ28万人に上ることがわかりました。

これによる減収額は、広島県で45億円程度、岡山県で10億円程度の合わせて55億円ほどと見込まれています。

岡山県によりますと、豪雨で大きな被害が出た倉敷市真備町から10キロ余り離れた倉敷市の美観地区でも、主な文化施設に訪れた人の数が去年と同じ時期に比べて半分以下に落ち込んでいます。直接被災していない地域などでも影響が出ているということです。

広島、岡山両県では、県内の主要な観光地はほぼ平常どおりに営業し、観光に支障はないとして、ホームページやSNSによる情報発信などを通じて観光業への支援を強化していくことにしています。

Translation

After a record torrential downpour occurred in Hiroshima-ken and Okayama-ken, the people who canceled accommodation reservation had reached approximately 280,000 people in total by estimation, and it was expected that their income would decrease by about 5,500 million yen.

After a record torrential downpour occurred in Hiroshima-ken and Okayama-ken, some of the accommodation in hotels and Japanese-style inns in the prefecture were picked out to investigate the situation so as to estimate the number of cancellation in the whole prefecture.

As a result, regarding that number of reservation cancellation in Hiroshima-ken approximately 180,000 people canceled reservation in 800 facilities while in Okayama-ken approximately 100,000 people canceled reservation at 749 facilities. Together at both prefectures it was found out that the total reached approximately 280,000 people.

Regarding the decreased income, it was about 4,500 million yen in Hiroshima-ken and of about 1,000 million yen in Okayama-ken, all together it was believed to reach about 5,500 million yen.

According to Okayama-ken, the number of the people who visited the senic area in Kurashiki-shi, which was about 10 kilometers away from Kurashiki-shi Mabi-cho that had a torrential downpour causing big damage, the people who visited the key cultural facilities went down by more than half compared with the same time last year. It was said that the area with no torrential downpour directly had also suffered.

At Hiroshima and Okayama two prefectures, the main tourist spots of these prefectures were mostly running as usual, and as it was supposed that there were no troubles to do sightseeing, home page and information sent by SNS were used to strengthen support to the sightseeing trade.

So tourism in Japan was affected by the heavy rain and bad weather. I hope it will recover soon.

2018年8月3日 星期五

Long-term interest rate - the national debt yield also dropped after the Bank of Japan introduced new measures


Recently the NHK News On-line reported the following:
長期金利 国債利回りは日銀の新措置後も低下
2018731 1804

31日の国債の市場では、日銀が金融政策決定会合で長期金利の一定の上昇を容認することを決めたものの、引き続き、大規模な金融緩和が続くことに変わりはないとの見方から国債が買われ、長期金利は低下しました。

31日の国債の市場では、日銀の金融政策決定会合の結果を受けて、午後に入って日本国債を買う動きが強まり、国債の価格は上昇しました。

国債は価格が上がると利回りが低下する関係にあり、長期金利の代表的な指標である満期までの期間が10年の国債の利回りは、会合の結果が公表される前より一時、0.045%低下して0.045%となりました。

市場関係者は、「現在0%程度としている長期金利の誘導目標が引き上げられるのではないかという観測からこのところ国債が売られ、利回りが上昇していた。しかし、金融政策決定会合の結果を受け、大規模な金融緩和が続くことに変わりはないとの受け止めが広がったことから国債を買い戻す動きが強まった」と話しています。

Translation


About the market of national debt on the 31st, the Bank of Japan at a financial policy decision meeting had decided to approve a certain level of rise in the fixed long-term interest rate, yet at the same time there was no change in that it would continue easing the financial situation in large-scale; the national debt were being bought and the long-term interest rate fell.

The national debt market on the 31st, in response to the decision of the financial policy meeting of the Bank of Japan, entering the afternoon there was a strongthening movement to buy Japanese government bond, and the price of the national debt rose.

A relation existed in that when the price of national debt rose, the interest yield would fall. The national debt of the ten-year maturity period, as an index of the typical long-term interest rate, fell by 0.045 % to stay at 0.045% for a short moment compared with the rate before meeting decisions were released.

Some people related to the market said that “as the desired target of the long-term interest rate now set to about 0 % at present may be increased, based on that observation the government bonds were being sold at this time, and the interest rate went up. But upon hearing the outcome of the financial policy meeting decision in that there would be no changes in continuing with a large-scale credit easing, it was widely accepted and a movement to repurchase national debt was strengthened."

So the Bank of Japan is closely monitoring changes in the price government bonds.

2018年7月28日 星期六

IMF: The growth rate of Japan and Europe was revised downward - "possibly reaching a global economy corner"


Recently the NHK News On-line reported the following:
IMF 日欧の成長率を下方修正世界経済曲がり角の可能性”
2018717 1526

IMF=国際通貨基金は、世界経済に関する最新の報告で、日本とヨーロッパのことしの経済成長率の見通しを下方修正し、世界経済が曲がり角を迎える可能性があると指摘しました。さらにアメリカと各国の貿易摩擦が世界経済のブレーキになりかねないと慎重な見方を示しました。

IMFは、最新の世界経済の見通しを発表し、ことしの日本のGDP=国内総生産の成長率は消費が弱含んでいるため1%にとどまると分析し、3か月前の予測から0.2ポイント下方修正しました。

また、ユーロ圏も0.2ポイント下げて2.2%に、アメリカは、大規模な減税の効果を見て2.9%で据え置きました。

さらに日本とヨーロッパについて、IMFは成長のペースがすでにピークに達したようだと分析して、拡大してきた世界経済が曲がり角を迎える可能性があると指摘しました。

また、アメリカのトランプ政権と各国との貿易摩擦がエスカレートしていくことがこの先、世界経済のブレーキになりかねないとも指摘して、これまでより慎重な見方を示しました。

さらにIMFは、貿易摩擦の行方次第で、突然、金融市場の安定が損なわれて為替相場などが大きく変動する可能性があるとしています。

IMFは市場の影響を受けやすい新興国は財政や金融、為替政策を組み合わせ、為替の急激な変動などに備えるよう求めています。

Translation

On global economy IMF, the International Monetary Fund revised downwards the economic growth rate of European and Japan this year in its latest report, and pointed out that there was a possibility that global economy was at a turning point. Furthermore, the United States trade frictions with other countries could become a brake on the global economy, and showed a conservative view point.

IMF announced a forecast on the latest global economy, and analyzed that the the growth rate of this year's Japanese GDP= gross domestic product would stop at 1% because of weak consumption, and revised downward 0.2 points from a prediction 3 months ago.

Also Euro area was lowered by 0.2 points to 2.2%, and the United States with the effect of a large-scale tax reduction would stand at 2.9% without changes.

Furthermore, about Japan and Europe, after doing some analyses IMF pointed out that there was a possibility that the grow-up pacing seemed to have reached a peak already and that the expanded global economy was facing a turning point.

It also pointed out that American Trump government’s trade friction with other countries from now on could escalate and became a brake on global economy, a more careful than before point of view was indicated.

Furthermore, IMF assumed that following the trade friction there was a possibility that suddenly the exchange rate would fluctuate seriously and damaged the stability of the financial market.

IMF was asking the developing countries which tended to be influenced by the market to combine their fiscal policy, finance and exchange policy to prepare for any sudden fluctuation in exchange.

だから、世界的な財政状況が悪化する方向に向かっているかもしれない。

2018年7月22日 星期日

"To leave the curry in cooking pot”- half of the people had the right knowledge on food poisoning measure


Recently the NHK News On-line reported the following:
「カレーを鍋のまま保存」が半数 正しい知識で食中毒対策を
2018713 1157

暑い季節は食中毒の発生が懸念されますが、東京都が行ったアンケート調査によるとカレーを鍋のまま保存する人が半数近くに上るなど、食中毒対策への理解不足が明らかになり、専門家は正しい知識をもとに対策を講じるよう呼びかけています。

東京都が週に1回以上、自宅で料理する都内の成人男女を対象に、ことしはじめ実施したウェブアンケートによりますと、回答した1000人のうち、カレーを一晩寝かせる際に、鍋のまま、常温または冷蔵庫で保存する人が46.2%に上ったということです。

都健康安全研究センターの実験によりますと、調理したカレーに1グラムあたり1000個の食中毒菌が残っていると、室温のまま冷ました場合は、5時間後に100万個以上に菌が増えた一方、2時間で急速に温度を下げた場合は、5時間後も食中毒菌は増殖しなかったということです。

これについて栄養学が専門で東京 渋谷にある服部栄養専門学校助教授の安保有利子さんは「カレーのようにとろみがあって冷めにくい食品の場合は、容器に小分けにすると早く冷やすことができる」と指摘しています。

そのうえで、いわゆる「一晩寝かせたカレー」で増えやすい食中毒菌のウエルシュ菌は空気を嫌うため、温め直す場合には、電子レンジではなく、鍋でしっかり混ぜ、空気中の酸素を加えながら、むらがないように加熱することが大切だとしています。

一方、東京都のアンケートでは、大半の人が、梅干しに食中毒の予防効果があるとしていますが、実際に抗菌作用が生じるのは梅干しの周りに限られることから、安保さんは弁当などでは梅干しをご飯全体に混ぜることを勧めていました。

安保さんは「正しい知識を身につけて効果的な対策を講じることで、食中毒のリスクを回避してほしい」と呼びかけています。

Translation


While there was a fear on the occurrence of food poisoning in hot seasons, according to a questionnaire survey done in Tokyo-to, the number of people who left the curry in the cooking pot as it was after cooking went up to near half; it became clear that there was a lack of understanding in measures on food poisoning, there was a call for specialists to talk about the basic correct measures.

According to a web questionnaires conducted this year targeting at adult men and women in the Metropolitan area who did cooking at home more than once a week, among the 1000 people, it was said that the number of people who kept curry in the cooking pot overnight, keeping it in the pot at room temperature, or at a refrigerator went up to 46.2%.

According to an experiment in a healthy safe research center in the capital, for 1 gram of cooked curry there were 1000 food poisoning bacteria. To leave it in the room temperature to let it cool, 5 hours later, the bacteria would increase to more than 1,000,000, when lowering the temperature rapidly within 2 hours, it was said that food poisoning bacteria would not multiply within 5 hours.

About this, Anpo Yūrishi as a nutrition expert and the assistant professor of Hattori nutritional college in Tokyo Shibuya pointed out that "When there is something thick like curry which was difficult to cool down, it could be subdivided and thus can cool down early."

On top of that, in the so-called "curry stayed overnight", Welsh fungus food poisoning bacteria which disliked air were easy to increase. When heating it up again, not to use the microwave, but to mix it well in a cooking pot so as to let air's oxygen go into it. It was important to heat it evenly.

On the other hand, while over half of the people asked by the Tokyo-to questionnaire had supposed pickled plum's preventive measures over the food poisoning, but because actually the antibacterial effect was limited to around the pickled plum, Ms. Anbo was recommending that pickled plum be mixed with all the rice in a box lunch etc.

Ms. Anbo was calling that "I want you to avoid food poisoning risk by keeping  the right knowledge to yourself and taking effective measures."

          私はカレーが大好きです。 このエッセーは食中毒を避ける方法を教えてくれました。

2018年7月19日 星期四

For the first time Japan and EU would institutionalize that one could also have an academic degree from a university in the overseas studying location


Recently the NHK News On-line reported the following:
留学先の大学からも学位もらえます 日本とEU 初の制度化へ
201874 2042

日本とEUの間で、留学した学生に対し、自国だけでなく、留学先の大学からも学位を授与できるようにする制度の新設に向けた最終調整が行われていることがわかりました。

林文部科学大臣は、EUとの人材交流の促進を図るため、現地時間の6日、ハンガリーを訪れ、EUで教育を担当するナブラチチ委員と会談しますが、このほど会談後に発表される共同プレス声明案が明らかになりました。

それによりますと、日本とEUに加盟する28か国との間で、留学した学生に対し、自国だけでなく、留学先の大学からも学位を授与できるようにする制度を新設するとしています。

また、双方の国の大学が共同で学位を授与できるようにする制度も新設するとしています。

具体的には、宇宙や医療などの幅広い分野で、日本とEUの大学に「共同プログラム」を開発するよう募り、このプログラムに参加した学生が新たな制度の対象になるということで、現在、日本とEUの間で合意に向けて最終的な調整を行っています。

留学先の大学からも学位が授与される仕組みは、大学どうしで個別に行っているケースはありますが、日本政府として制度化するのは今回が初めてで、EUが域外の国と行うのも初めてだということです。

Translation

It was found out that a system that an academic degree could also be given from a university in the overseas location of studying, on top of the one from one’s own country, was established between Japan and the EU for students who studied abroad; and final adjustments were being made.

Hayashi the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in order to plan for promoting an exchange of human resources with the EU, visited Hungary on the 6th local time to talk with the Nabula Chi Chi the commissioner who took charge of education in the EU, this was made clear from a mutual press statement plan announced after the meeting.

According to that, between Japan and the 28 countries which joined EU, regarding the student who studied abroad it was supposed that a new system would be established that one could also receive an academic degree from a university in the studying abroad location on top of one’s own country.

It also supposed to establish a system to make sure that both national universities could give the academic degree jointly.

Specifically in the wide field of the universe and the medical treatment etc., "common programs" might be developed with recruitment in universities in Japan and the EU. It was said that the students who participated in this program would be the target of the new system, and now final agreements were being adjusted between Japan and the EU.

While there were cases in which an academic degree was also be given by a university in the overseas studying location, it was being performed independently between universities. This was the  first time that such arrangement was institutionalized by the Japanese Government, and it was said that it was also the first time that EU did this with a country outside its area.

   So, the academic connection between Japan and EU would be further enhanced.

2018年7月14日 星期六

Tax exemption for foreigners visiting Japan was expanded from today


Recently the NHK News On-line reported the following:
訪日外国人向け免税 きょうから拡充
201871 2201

日本を訪れる外国人旅行者の消費税の免税制度が1日から拡充されます。これまであった対象商品の区分をなくし、購入額が合わせて5000円以上になれば免税の対象となるもので、政府は外国人旅行者の消費拡大につなげたい考えです。

これまでの消費税の免税制度では、対象商品が家電や洋服といった「一般物品」と、化粧品や食品といった「消耗品」の2つに区分され、外国人旅行者が1回の買い物につき、それぞれ5000円以上購入しなければ免税されませんでした。

これについて、外国人旅行者から「わかりにくい」との声が相次いでいたことから、政府は1日から、2つの区分をなくし、どの品目でも合わせて5000円以上購入すれば免税することにしました。

制度の拡充に合わせて、東京 銀座にある免税店では、先週から日本語や中国語で新しい制度を知らせるポスターを張り出すなどして周知を図っていました。

免税店の担当者は「今までは会計の際に免税の対象にならないとわかると購入をやめる客もいたが、新しい制度では買い物がしやすくなると期待している」と話していました。

観光庁によりますと、外国人旅行者1人当たりの平均消費額は2年連続で減少していて、政府は新しい免税制度によって消費拡大につなげたいとしています。

Translation

 Starting from the 1st, tax-free system in consumption tax for foreign travelers visiting Japan was expanded. The division of targeted goods enforced up to now would be lifted, and when the amount of purchase was more than 5000 yen in total, it would be the eligible for duty-free; the government had the idea of linking it to increasing the foreign traveler's consumption.

Up to now under the tax-free system in taxation, the targeted goods were divided into two types, the home electronics and clothes were "general items” while cosmetics and food were etc. were “consumables items”; when a foreign traveler didn't buy more than 5000 yen respectively in each shopping, it would not be eligible to tax exemption.

Regarding this, because there was successive voice from foreign travelers saying that the system "is incomprehensible", from the 1st of this month the government discarded the 2 divisions; when buying more than 5000 yen, whichever list of articles you had bought would be eligible for a taxation exemption.

According to this institutional expansion, at the duty-free shop in Tokyo Ginza, since last week, aiming at making publicity, among other things posters in Japanese and Chinese were put up which talked about the new system.

The people in charge in a duty-free shop said that “so far there are cases that when visitors come to the billing, they would stop buying when they found out that they were not duty-free targeted items; it's expected that shopping would become easy in the new system."

According to a sightseeing agency, the average expenditure per foreign traveler had decreased continuously for 2 years and it was assumed that the government would like to expand consumption through a new tax-free system.

              So, the new taxation arrangement would attract more purchases by foreign travelers.