2019年9月21日 星期六

Wild squirrel, eavesdropping on bird conversation to detect natural enemies? A US survey


Recently CNN.co.jp reported the following:
野生のリス、天敵の察知に小鳥の会話を盗み聞き? 米調査
2019.09.06 Fri posted at 16:27 JST

(CNN) 北米に生息するリスの1種、トウブハイイロリスは天敵から身を守るため、小鳥の会話を盗み聞きして安全かどうかを判断しているらしい――。米科学誌プロスワンにそんな研究結果が発表された。

米オーバリン大学の研究チームは、野生のリスの様子について、周辺の餌場に集まる鳥たちの鳴き声や、天敵のアカオノスリが立てる物音を含めて調査した。

当然ながら、リスはノスリの物音が聞こえると、動きを止めたり周囲をしきりに見回したり立ち上がったりするなどして警戒する様子を見せた。

ところがノスリの物音の後に鳥のさえずりが聞こえると、リスの警戒心は急速に薄れていた。たとえノスリの気配があった場合でも、自分の周りの鳥たちがリラックスしていると判断すれば、リスもリラックスする様子だった。

これについて研究チームでは、小鳥は普通、差し迫った危険を察知していない時にさえずることから、鳥の声が「安全を表す指標」になるようだと指摘。「身の安全を守るための盗み聴きは、これまで考えられていたよりも一般的なのかもしれない」と話している

Translation

(CNN) A kind of squirrel inhabiting in North America, the eastern gray squirrel, seemed to be eavesdropping on birds' conversations to determine if it was safe in order to protect themselves from natural enemies. Such research results were announced in the American scientific journal “PLOS ONE”.

A research team at the University of Oberlin in the United States investigated the state of wild squirrels, including the sounds made by birds gathering in the surrounding feeding ground, and the sound of their natural enemy the red-tailed hawks.

Of course, when the squirrel heard a buzzer, the squirrel showed vigilance by stopping its movement, looking around and standing up.

However, the squirrel's alertness faded rapidly when the birds tweeted after the noise of the buzzard. Even if there were signs of buzzards, the squirrels seemed to relax if they decided that the birds around them were relaxing.

The research team pointed out that the bird's voice seemed to be an “indicator of safety” because birds usually tweeted when they were not aware of imminent danger. "Sniffing to keep yourself safe may be more common than previously thought."

       So, wild squirrels have their own way of avoiding danger.

2019年9月20日 星期五

Apple “iPhone 11” announced, price remains unchanged for top models


Recently CNN.co.jp reported the following:
アップル「iPhone 11」発表、上位機種は価格据え置き
2019.09.11 Wed posted at 12:44 JST

アップル「iPhone 11」発表

サンフランシスコ(CNN Business) 米アップルは10日に開いた記者発表会で、スマートフォン「iPhone」の新モデルを発表した。

新しいiPhoneは、高性能モデルの「iPhone 11 Pro」「iPhone 11 Pro Max」と、価格を抑えた「iPhone 11」の3機種。それぞれiPhone XS、XS Max、XRの後継となる。

いずれもバッテリー持続時間やカメラ性能、ハードウェア性能の向上を図っているが、外観は従来のモデルと比べてそれほど大きな違いはない。

iPhone 11 ProとPro Maxは背面に3台のカメラを搭載。アップルによると、バッテリー持続時間は11 ProがXSに比べて4時間長くなり、Pro MaxはXS Maxに比べて5時間長くなった。

アップルのティム・クック最高経営責任者(CEO)はProモデルを「最もパワフルで最も進化したiPhone」と形容している。

米国での販売価格はiPhone 11 Proが999ドルから、Pro Maxは1099ドルから。これまでのXSおよびXS Maxと同じ価格に据え置いた。

同社iPhone事業部の売り上げは直近の3四半期連続で2けた台の落ち込みが続いていた。消費者が新しい端末に買い替えるまでの期間は長くなり、米中貿易戦争のあおりで中国での需要は減退している。

iPhone 11の値段を699ドルに抑え、昨年発売したXRの749ドルより安く設定したのは、そうした市場の変化を認識した対応と思われる。

新しいiPhoneは13日から注文の受け付けを開始し、20日に店頭で発売する。

同社は新しいスマートウォッチの「Apple Watch Series 5」やタブレット「iPad」の第7世代の端末も発表。また、新たに継続課金のサービスも打ち出し、ゲームやオリジナルドラマのストリーミングサービスをそれぞれ月額4.99ドルで楽しめるという。

Translation

2019.09.11 Wed posted at 12:44 JST

San Francisco (CNN Business) -- Apple at the press conference held on the 10th announced a new model of the smartphone - "iPhone".

The new iPhone was a high-performance model of “iPhone 11 Pro”, “iPhone 11 Pro Max”, and “iPhone 11” with a lower price. It would be the successor to iPhone XS, XS Max, and XR, respectively.

All of them were having improved battery life, camera performance, and hardware performance, but the appearance was not much different from the previous model.

iPhone 11 Pro and Pro Max were equipped with 3 cameras on the back. According to Apple, the battery duration of 11 Pro was 4 hours longer than XS, and Pro Max was 5 hours longer than XS Max.

Apple's CEO, Tim Cook, described the Pro model as “the most powerful and most advanced iPhone”.

Prices in the US range from $ 999 for iPhone 11 Pro and $ 1099 for Pro Max. The price was the same as the previous XS and XS Max.

The company's iPhone business unit sales had continued to decline by two digits for the last three consecutive quarters. It took longer for consumers to buy new devices, and demand in China was declining due to the US-China trade war.

The price of iPhone 11 was kept at $ 699 and was set to be cheaper than the $ 749 of XR released last year. This seemed to be a response that recognized such market changes.

The new iPhone would start accepting orders from the 13th and would be sold at stores on the 20th.

The company also announced the 7th generation devices of the new smart watch “Apple Watch Series 5” and the tablet “iPad”. In addition, a new continuous billing service had been launched, streaming services for games and original dramas could be enjoyed for a monthly fee of $ 4.99.

     So, Apple is hoping to use a new model iPhone to boost up its declining sales.

2019年9月16日 星期一

US Amazon opened the world's largest office in India


Recently CNN.co.jp reported the following:
米アマゾン、世界最大のオフィスをインドに開設

2019.08.26 Mon posted at 16:30 JST
  米アマゾンが、世界最大規模のオフィスをインド・ハイデラバードにオープンした/Amazon India

ニューデリー(CNN Business) 米アマゾンはこのほど、同社の拠点として世界最大規模のオフィスをインド南部ハイデラバードにオープンした。

アマゾンのビルはハイデラバードの金融街に建設された。敷地面積約3.8万平方メートル、オフィス面積約17万平方メートルと、一つの建物としては同社で最大の広さ。敷地面積は将来、フットボール場65面分に当たる約28万平方メートルまで拡大する計画があるという。

インド国内の正社員6万2000人余りの4分の1近い1万5000人を収容できる。

アマゾンが同国で雇用する契約社員も15万5000人に上り、1カ国の従業員数としては米国に次いで多い。

アマゾンは近年、巨大な市場を擁するインドへの進出を積極的に進めてきた。同社幹部はハイデラバードの新オフィスについて、長期的な事業展開の第一歩だと述べた。

このオフィスは、同社が米国外に保有する初の完全な自社ビルだ。

ハイデラバードは2004年、アマゾンがインドで初めて進出した都市。市内には、米マイクロソフトのインド本社や、スウェーデン発の家具大手イケアの同国1号店もある。

Translation

2019.08.26 Mon posted at 16:30 JST
  Amazon opened the world's largest office in Hyderabad, India / Amazon India

New Delhi (CNN Business)-- Amazon recently opened the world's largest office in Hyderabad, southern India, as the company's base.

The Amazon building was built in Hyderabad's financial district. With a site area of ​​approximately 38,000 square meters and an office area of ​​approximately 170,000 square meters, it was the largest building in the company. There were plans to expand the site area to about 280,000 square meters in the future, which would equivalent to 65 football fields.

It could accommodate 15,000 people, nearly a quarter of the 62,000 regular employees in India.

Amazon employed 155,000 contract employees in the country, the second largest number of employees in one country after the United States.

In recent years, Amazon had been aggressively expanding into India, which had a huge market. The company executive said that Hyderabad's new office would be the first step in its long-term business development.

This office would be the company's first fully-owned building outside the United States.

Hyderabad was the first city where Amazon entered India in 2004. In the city, there was also Microsoft's Indian headquarters, and the first IKEA furniture store which was a major furniture company from Sweden.

     It is interesting to know that amazon has picked India to open its biggest office instead of China, Malaysia or even Vietnam. For sure amazon prefers Indian because it is an emerging market. Yet, currently India’s economy is facing a slowing down and as such, I think this investment project may take some time before bearing fruit.

2019年9月13日 星期五

Sexual orientation towards the same sex: no specific gene - International research team


Recently Asahi Shimbun reported the following:
同性への性的指向、特定の遺伝子なし 国際研究チーム

戸田政考 20198300300

 人間の性的指向と遺伝子の関わりについて、国際研究チームが約47万人の遺伝情報(ゲノム)を調べたところ、同性との性的行為に強く関わる単一の遺伝子は存在しないことが確認された。専門家は「性的指向は遺伝よりも、様々な要因が影響していることが示された」としている。

 論文は29日、米科学誌「サイエンス」に掲載された。豪クイーンズランド大などのチームは、英バイオバンクや米企業が持つ両国など約47万人分のゲノムデータを元に、「同性と性的行為をした」などと答えた人と、そうでない人との違いを見た。

 その結果、同性との性的行為に強く影響を与える単一の遺伝子は見つからなかった。一方、同性と性的行為をしない人との間には、一つ一つの影響は弱いゲノムの違いが5カ所見つかった。さらに微弱なものは多数あるとみられる。

 こうした結果を元に遺伝子の影響を推定すると、英国で約8%、米国で約24%だった。過去の小規模な研究の結果とほぼ同じ傾向だった。

 研究に関わった米ブロード研究所のベンジャミン・ニール氏は「今回の結果は(全体の結果を表すもので)一人ひとりの性的行為を推測するものではない」としている。


 ログイン前の続きゲノム解析に詳しい東京大大学院の鎌谷洋一郎教授は「同性間の性的行為は、身長や知能などと同様に、個々には効果が弱いものの非常に多くの遺伝因子が関わる『複雑形質』であることが改めて示された。ただ、今回の研究ですべてが明らかになったわけではない。欧米人のゲノムを解析した結果が日本人にそのままあてはまるわけでもないだろう」と話している。

岡山大の中塚幹也教授(産婦人科)の話

 今回の研究結果は、性的指向は一つの遺伝子によるものではなく、治療の対象でもないことを示している。視力や身長、容姿などと同じように、性的指向も多様性があり、様々な要因が複雑に絡みあっている。

LGBTQに関してメディア啓発などをしている米国の団体「GLAAD」のチーフプログラムオフィサー、ジーク・ストークス氏のコメント

 今回の研究はゲイやレズビアンであることは、人間の生活の自然な部分であるという、さらなる証拠を示している。

 このことは研究者や科学者らによって、何度も導き出された結論だ。ゲイやレズビアンの行動に、生まれや養育が影響を及ぼす決定的なものはない、という長年の確立された理解を再確認している。

Translation

An international research team examined the genetic information (genome) of about 470,000 people regarding the relationship between human sexual orientation and genes, it was confirmed that there was no one single gene strongly related to same sex sexual activities. Experts said that sexual orientation had been influenced by various factors other than heredity.

The paper was published in the US science journal "Science" on the 29th. Australian Queensland University and other teams, based on genome data for about 470,000 people held by the UK Biobank and US companies, tried to see the difference between those who answered “doing sexual activity with the same sex” etc. and those who did not.

As a result, no one single gene that strongly affects sexual activity with the same sex was found. On the other hand, among individuals who did not have the same sex sexual activity, on one by one impact, a minor genome difference in five places were found. It seemed that even more weaker genomes could be found.

Based on these results, the influence of genes was estimated to be about 8% in the UK and about 24% in the US. The results were almost the same as the results of past small studies.

Benjamin Neil of the Broad Institute who was involved in the research said " This result (representing the overall results) is not an estimate of each person's sexual activity. "

Prof. Yoichiro Kamatani at the Graduate School of the University of Tokyo who was familiar with continued genome analysis before logging in said “sexual activity among same sex is just like height and intelligence; it shows again that there is a 'complex trait' involving a large number of genetic factors although the effect is weak individually. However, not everything had been clarified in this study, and the results of analyzing the genomes of Westerners might not apply to Japanese people as they are.”


Arguments of Okayama University Professor Mikiya Nakatsuka (Gynecology and Obstetrics)
The results of this study indicated that sexual orientation was not due to one single gene and was not a subject of treatment. Like vision, height, and appearance, sexual orientation was diverse, and various factors were intertwined.

Comments from Henry Stokes, chief program officer of the US organization “GLAAD”, which conducted media awareness related to LGBTQ
This study showed further evidence that being a gay or lesbian was a natural part of human life.

This was a conclusion that had been drawn many times by researchers and scientists. It reaffirmed the long-standing and established understanding that birth and nurturing had no decisive influence on gay and lesbian behavior.

       So, this study once again confirms that sexual orientation is not due to a single gene and is not a subject of any medical treatment.

2019年9月12日 星期四

Low-priced version iPhone to be released in spring 2020


Recently Nihon Keizai Shimbun Electronic Edition reported the following:
iPhone廉価版、20年春にも発売へ 米アップル
ネット・IT 北米
2019/9/4 18:00日本経済新聞 電子版
米アップルはスマートフォン「iPhone(アイフォーン)」の価格を抑えた新製品を2020年春にも発売することが4日、明らかになった。有機ELよりも安価な液晶パネルを使い、最新機種より画面を小さくする。アップルが得意としてきた高級機種は中国経済の減速などで販売が落ち込んでいる。廉価版を投入し、韓国のサムスン電子や中国の華為技術(ファーウェイ)などの商品に対抗する。

複数の関係者が日本経済新聞の取材で明らかにした。16年に発売した「SE」の後継機という位置づけで、来春にも発売する。アップルは今月10日に発表会を開く予定だが、今秋に発売する上位機種の披露が中心になる見通し。同社は廉価版の新製品に関する日経新聞の問い合わせには回答しなかった。

画面の大きさは17年に発売した4.7インチの「8」とほぼ同じで安価な液晶パネルを使うことで価格を抑える。そのほか多くの部品は上位機種とほぼ同じものを使う。価格は未定だが、サムスン電子の「ギャラクシーA30」(4万円前後)などの競合商品に対抗する。

iPhoneを取り巻く環境は厳しさが増している。米中貿易摩擦の影響でスマホの最大市場の中国でiPhoneの販売台数が振るわず、世界全体でも減少している。米調査会社IDCによると1946月のスマホ世界シェアはiPhone10%でサムスン電子、ファーウェイに次いで3位になっている。

Translation

The US Apple announced on the 4th that it would launch a new product in the spring of 2020 that kept the price of the “iPhone” in check. It would use a liquid crystal panel that was cheaper than organic EL and make the screen smaller than the latest model. Sales of high-end models that Apple had been good at had declined due to a slowdown in the Chinese economy. A low-priced version would be launched to compete with products such as Samsung Electronics in Korea and Huawei in China.

Several officials revealed this in the Nihon Keizai Shimbun interview. Positioned as the successor to the “SE” released in 2016, it would be released next spring. Apple planned to hold a presentation on the 10th of this month, but it was expected to focus on showing the top models to be released this fall. The company did not respond to Nikkei newspaper inquiries about the new low-priced product.

The size of the screen would be almost the same as the 4.7-inch “8” released in 2017, and the price would be reduced by using an inexpensive LCD panel. Many other parts would use almost the same parts as the top model. The price was undecided, but it would compete with competing products such as Samsung Electronics' Galaxy A30 (around 40,000 yen).

The environment surrounding the iPhone was becoming increasingly severe. Due to the US-China trade friction, iPhone sales in China as the largest market for smartphones was below expectation; even in the world it was declining. According to the US research company IDC, the global market share of iPhone in April-June 2019 was 10%, ranking third after Samsung Electronics and Huawei.

     So, the iPhone manufacture is also aiming at making cheaper models in order to expand its market share.

2019年9月11日 星期三

Is Nessie a huge eel? Underwater DNA research - “possibility could not be excluded”


Recently NHK News On-line reported the following:
ネッシーは巨大うなぎ?水中のDNA調査「可能性排除できず」
201996 842

イギリス北部にあるネス湖の謎の生物、「ネッシー」について専門家グループが湖の水を採取して調査した結果、恐竜のような生き物のDNAは見つかりませんでした。その一方で「巨大なうなぎである可能性は排除できない」としています。

ネッシーはイギリス北部スコットランドにあるネス湖で85年前に撮影されたとされる写真などから、世界中のマニアなどの間で恐竜のような長い首を持つ謎の生き物として語られてきました。

ニュージーランドのオタゴ大学の遺伝学者、ニール・ゲメル教授が率いる国際的な研究チームは去年、その真相を究明しようとネス湖のおよそ250か所で水のサンプルを採取し、中に含まれた生き物の皮膚や排せつ物などの「環境DNA」をデータベースに照合して、湖に生息している生き物の種類を特定する分析を続けてきました。

ゲメル教授は5日、イギリスで記者会見を開き、調査の結果、恐竜のような生き物のDNAは発見できなかったと発表しました。

その一方で、「ネス湖ではうなぎのDNAが多く見つかった。謎の生き物が巨大なうなぎである可能性は排除できない」と述べ、ネッシーの正体がうなぎである可能性は残されていると指摘しました。

今回の調査をもってしてもネッシーをめぐる論争に終止符が打たれることはなさそうです。

Translation

A group of experts gathered and investigated the water of Lake Ness in northern England for the mysterious creature of Loch Ness, and found no DNA for dinosaur-like creatures. On the other hand, “the possibility of a huge eel cannot be excluded”.

Nessie had been described as a mysterious creature with a long neck like a dinosaur among enthusiasts around the world based on photographs taken 85 years ago at Loch Ness in Scotland, Northern England.

Last year, an international research team led by Professor Neil Gemmell, a geneticist at the University of Otago in New Zealand, took water samples at approximately 250 locations in Loch Ness to find out the truth. We had continued analysis to identify the types of creatures inhabiting the lake by collating “environmental DNA” such as skin and excrement with a database.

Professor Gemmell held a press conference in the UK on the 5th, and as a result of the investigation, he announced that DNA of creatures like dinosaurs could not be found.

On the other hand, he said, “There is a lot of eel DNA found in Loch Ness. The possibility that the mysterious creature being a giant eel cannot be ruled out,” pointing to the possibility that Nessie ’s identity is an eel.

Even with this survey, it seemed unlikely that the dispute over Nessie would end.

     So, the story of the Loch Ness monster will continue and tourist will continue to be attracted to visit the lake.

2019年9月9日 星期一

China was cautious of money outflow, new regulations to avoid sharp yuan depreciation


Recently Nihon Keizai Shimbun Electronic Edition reported the following:
中国、資金流出を警戒 急激な元安回避へ新規制
中国・台湾
2019/8/29 23:00日本経済新聞 電子版
【上海=張勇祥】中国政府が海外への資金流出を抑制する新規制を導入した。資金流出が加速した場合、海外送金や外貨売却が多い銀行の評価を引き下げる新ルールを適用する。不動産会社には借り換え目的以外の外債発行を禁じた。米中貿易戦争が長期化するなか、人民元相場で11年ぶりとなる1ドル=7元を突破し、当局は当面この水準を容認しているが、元安に歯止めがかからない状況は回避したい考えだ

■海外送金多い銀行の評価下げ

中国政府は元安を容認して輸出企業への影響を緩和する方針だが、2015年の人民元切り下げを機に起きた「人民元ショック」のような急激な元売り圧力に襲われることを警戒する。

このため導入したのが元売りが膨らまないよう銀行の海外送金などを制限する新しい規則だ。金融システムの安定が損なわれかねないと判断した場合、国家外貨管理局は「非平常時」と認定する。各行の元の海外送金、外貨売却の状況を全国平均と比べ、差が大きいほど評価を下げる。低評価の銀行は業務に制限をかけられる可能性がある。

現在も当局は海外送金を制限するため、個人顧客に詳しい資料を提出させるよう銀行を厳格指導している。留学費用なら入学許可書、仕送りでは相手先の在職証明などを求める。「不動産や保険商品の購入目的での海外送金は認めていない」(準大手銀行の支店)

元の海外送金と顧客への外貨売却は、元安や資金流出が止まらなかった1617年にも外貨管理局が規制した。このときは外国人が円換算で数十万円規模の送金をするのも難しくなった。手段を選ばない規制に海外から批判を浴びたが、今回は直接的な資本規制は回避して批判をかわす狙いだ。

だが外貨管理局は平常時と非平常時の判断基準を示しておらず、当局のさじ加減で海外送金に支障が出る恐れがある。


■不動産会社の外貨調達制限

不動産会社にはより厳しい規制を課した。国家発展改革委員会は外債発行による調達資金の使途を「1年以内に満期を迎える海外債務に限る」と通知し、借り換え以外の調達は認めない方針だ。

中国の不動産会社は元が高値で推移した1315年にドル建て債務を膨らませた。197月時点の残高は1700億ドル(18兆円)との調査もある。元安が進めば債務返済の負担はさらに重くなる。

ドルを調達すれば一時的に元高要因になる可能性はある。だが信用の低下した不動産会社は10%前後の高利で借りている例もある。これ以上の債務拡大は金融市場の不安定要因になりかねない。

中国政府は米国との摩擦の長期化を懸念する。トランプ米大統領は81日、制裁関税の対象を中国からの輸入品ほぼすべてに広げる「第4弾」の発動を表明した。5日には元の対ドル相場が08年以来となる1ドル=7元台を付けた。29日には一時1ドル=7.17元まで下落し、月間の下落率は約4%と「管理変動相場制」を導入した05年以降で最大になる見通しだ。

Translation

Shanghai Zhang Yuxiang  -- The Chinese government had introduced new regulations to curb the outflow of funds to foreign countries.  If the outflow of fund accelerated, new rules would be applied to lower the rating of those banks that had many overseas remittance and foreign currency selling. Real estate companies were prohibited from issuing foreign bonds other than for refinancing purposes. Amid a prolonged U.S.-China trade war, the yuan had surpassed the one US dollar to seven yuan level which was not seen in 11 years, and the authorities tolerated this level for the time being, but they wanted to avoid a situation in which the yuan's depreciation could not be stopped.

 Lowering the evaluation rating of banks with a lot of overseas remittance

The Chinese government was prepared to ease its influence on exporting companies by allowing a yuan depreciation but was wary of being hit by sharp yuan pressures such as the "Yuan shock" triggered by the yuan's devaluation in 2015.

For this reason, new rules were introduced to restrict banks' overseas remittance so that the yuan selling would not expand. If it was determined that the stability of the financial system could be damaged, the National Foreign Exchange Administration could determine the situaion as "abnormal time". Focus on individual bank’s overseas yuan remittance and the statue of foreign currency selling, when compared to the national average, the greater the difference the lower the evaluation rating. There was a possibility that the lowly rated banks might be restricted in their operations.

The authorities for the purpose of restricting overseas remittances, instructed banks to strictly provide detailed information of individual customers. If the remittance was for a study abroad fee an admission letter was required, and also for proof of employment etc. of the party in remittance. "Overseas remittances for the purpose of purchasing real estate and insurance products were not permitted" (branch of a semi-major bank).

The foreign currency management bureau had tried to regulate the yuan overseas remittance and the selling of foreign currency to customers in the year 2016-17 when both yuan deprecation and the outflow of funds could not be stopped. This time, it became difficult for the foreigner to send the remittance of several hundred thousand yen in yen conversion. It had attracted criticism from overseas in that the regulations were not the way to go. This time the aim was to fend off criticism by avoiding direct capital control.

However, the foreign currency management bureau did not show the criteria to judge what was normal time and non-normal time, and there was a possibility that the overseas remittance might be hindered by the level of adjustments of the authorities.

Restricting real estate companies in buying foreign currency 

 Stricter regulations were imposed on real estate companies. The National Development and Reform Commission notified that the use of funds raised by issuing foreign bonds would be limited to “overseas debt which will expire within a year”, and would not allow procurement other than for refinancing.

Chinese real estate companies inflated their US dollar-denominated debt in the year 2013-15 when the yuan shifted to a high price. According an investigation as of July 2019, the balance was 170 billion US dollars (18 trillion yen). If the yuan was weakened, the burden of debt repayment would become even heavier.

If US dollar rose, it could temporarily become a source of high yuan. However, there were examples that the real estate company which had low credit rating to borrow at a high interest rate of around 10%.  Further debt expansion could be a factor in financial market instability.

Beijing was concerned about a prolonged friction with the United States. U.S. President Trump announced on Monday that he would launch the "fourth round" to extend the sanctions to almost all Chinese imports. On the 5th, the yuan's exchange rate against the US dollar was at the lowest since 2008. On the 29th at one time it fell to 7.17 yuan for one dollar, the largest monthly decline rate of about 4%, and the biggest drop since the introduction of the " Controlled floating exchange-rate system" in 2005.

     So, from now on the remittance of  yuan to overseas will be more restrictive under these new regulations. One effect of such new regulations is that we could from now on see fewer property buying activities by the Chinese in Australia, the UK, Canada and the US.