2009年11月29日 星期日

The China White Paper 1949(I)

The content of this book The China White Paper : August 1949 was first published in 1949 under the title of United States Relations with China: With Special Reference to the Period 1944-1949. It appeared during the final stage of Communist victory in China's civil war fought some 60 years ago. At that historical moment, the US Department of State chose to let the record speak for itself. For me, the most interesting part of the book was a 400-page summary of American China policy from 1844 to 1949. Through these pages, readers could see the development of Sino-US relation through the American eyes. (to be continued)

United States, Department of State. The China White Paper-August 1949. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1967.
(注:相片見到那書是我歷史老師Mr. Raoul Grossman多年前送給我, 物重情意亦重, 特別再次多謝)

2009年11月28日 星期六

M.C. Perry and Japan (XXI)

One thing in connection with the Japanese culture was observed by the American. When the feast was over, the Japanese from the left bosom of their loose robes took out some paper to warp up what was left after the dinner.1 The next day, Perry landed to take part in a meeting to work out a draft treaty. By then he knew that Shimoda was suitable for the the American ships and thus accepted it as one of the ports for opening. Perry continued to press for the opening of two more ports. Meanwhile a new point was raised: the extent of privileges to be allowed to the American who might visit Shimoda. The final agreement was that Americans could enjoy free excursion up to seven li into the country side around the port. The next question was about the stationing of an American consular in Japan. It was finally agreed that an agent was allowed to live at Shimoda, and he could come to Japan 18 months after the treaty was signed.2 Within the next few days a draft treaty was worked out and written in Chinese, Dutch and Japanese languages respectively. One March 31, 1854, Perry visited the treaty house and the draft treaty was exchanged, in total it had 12 Articles.3 Article II stipulated that the port of Shimoda and Hokodate would be open to American ships for wood, water and provisions. Article V stipulated that citizens of the US who would temporarily reside in Shimoda and Hokodate could have freedom of movement within the limits of seven Japanese miles (or li) from the harbor. Article IX stipulated that in future, if the government of Japan should grant to any other nations privileges that had not been granted to the US, that same privilege should likewise be granted to the US automatically. Article XI stipulated that the US consuls or agents would, at the earliest, be allowed to live in Shimoda 18 months after the signing of this treaty.4 This treaty laid the foundation of diplomatic relationship between the two nations.

1. Perry, Matthew Calbraith ed. by Sidney Wallach. Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan. NY: Coward-McCann, 1952, page 200.
2. Ibid., page 202.
3. Ibid., page 205.
4. Ibid., page 206.

2009年11月26日 星期四


Recently Mainichi News reported the following:

愛知県一宮市の農産物加工卸「たけ乃子屋」(破産手続き中)が中国産タケノコの水煮を国産と表示して販売していた事件で、愛知県警は27日、同社元社長、森嘉仁容疑者(52)ら幹部3人を不正競争防止法違反容疑で逮捕した。県警は森容疑者が偽装表示を主導したとみて、経緯などを詳しく調べる。 ほかに逮捕されたのは同社工場長と横浜営業所長の2人。捜査幹部によると、森容疑者らは共謀して取引先会社に依頼し、中国から輸入したタケノコ水煮を国産と表示した袋に詰め替えさせ、首都圏や東海地方のスーパーで販売した疑いが持たれている。

On the 27th, Aichi Prefecture police arrested three executives, including the former president of a farm product processing wholesale company (currently under bankruptcy procedure) in Aichi Prefecture Ichinomiya City, for violating the unfair competition prevention law by displaying bamboo shoots imported from China as domestic produce and sold them as such. Prefecture police examined the details thoroughly and thought that the suspects had initiated false labeling. Besides, two people (the plant manager of this company and the head of the Yokohama office) were arrested. It was thought that the suspects conspired and requested the company to import bamboo shoots from China, then filled them into bags that displayed the items as domestic produce, and sold them in supermarkets in the metropolitan area and in the Tokai region, according to investigating officials.

From the above report, it is shocking to note that even goods labeled as made in Japan could be in fact made in China.

2009年11月25日 星期三


"日本語基本動詞詞典"是中國大陸出版的日文詞典, 我差不多每天都用到它. 這書的用處是幫我找到日文動詞的意義, 和它的漢字寫法 (如果有的話), 同時也看到它變化出來的句型, 並有例句方便讀者學習. 每個基本動詞都交代了詞形變化, 例如否定式, 連用式, 過去式, 中頓式, 假定式等等, 十分清楚. 這本詞典用日文五十音順排列出超過七百個基本動詞. 再者,每個動詞都列出由它發展出來的複合動詞, 又有動詞的近義詞, 所以資料十分詳盡. 這詞典是於1996年出版, 有840頁, 共收集了728 個基本動詞.

2009年11月21日 星期六


"日本語句型詞典"是中國大陸出版的日語語句字典, 它是我常用到的工具書. 這書的用處是幫我找到與句子一起使用的各種類日文句語. 它的編排是用日文五十音順把句型排列. 這詞典在書尾加入"末尾音逆序索引" 和 "意義,功能項目索引" 方便使用者迅速地找到所需的詞句. 這本書的好處是它有很多例句 (漢字兼附加日語發音), 十分詳盡. 這字典是於2002年出版, 於2006年再版, 共891頁, 收集了3,000 個各類句型.

2009年11月20日 星期五


Recently Jiji News reported the following:

 来年の漁獲枠が4割近く削減されることになった大西洋と地中海産クロマグロの日本向け現地価格が値下がりしている。先行き供給の先細り懸念がある一方、世界最大のマグロ消費国、日本の消費不振が輸入価格の下げ要因となっている。この年末年始も、昨年より安く高級マグロが店頭に並びそうだ。 スペインやマルタ、トルコなど地中海産の養殖マグロを扱う国内の輸入業者らは今月上旬から、年末以降に冷凍や生で販売する魚の仕入れ価格交渉を開始。いけすから取り上げた直後の価格は、200キロ以上の大型魚で「昨年比4割安の1キロ当たり1500円前後でほぼ決まる見通し」とマルタ産などを扱う輸入商社は言う。 国内で多く流通する頭や骨などを取り除いた冷凍のブロック(4つ割り)の卸値も、「キロ当たり3000円前後と昨年より1500円近く安くなりそう」(築地魚市場)と卸会社はみる。 安値要因は、消費の落ち込みに伴う過剰在庫。冷凍クロマグロの在庫は「年間の消費量に相当する2万トン以上あるだろう」(大手水産会社)とされ、その大半が「現地価格が高かった昨秋のリーマンショック以前に取引されたもの」(同)という。安く処分できない昨年からの在庫が重荷となって、大手商社などが今年の買い付けに慎重になっていることも、現地価格の下げ要因だ。

Blue-fin tuna from the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea which already had a reduced harvest quota of about 40 percent next year now faced a drop in price in Japan that indicated sluggish consumption and surplus stock. As the world's largest tuna consumption country, Japan's sluggish tuna consumption became a factor that had lowered import prices and tapered off anxious in its future supply. Towards the end of this year, high-end tuna were found lining-up cheaply in shops when compared with the high price of last year. Domestic importers who handled the farmed tuna from the Mediterranean Sea such as Spain, Malta, and Turkey and sold them frozen and alive, starting from the beginning of this month, set in motion the price negotiation on the supply of tuna for the period beyond the year end. For fish weighted 200 kilo or more, the import firm that handled the fish from Malta etc. said "it is expected that compared with last year, a 40% discount is equal to about 1500 yen cheaper per kilo". Wholesale companies (in Tsukiji Uoichiba) having noted that the wholesale price of the frozen block circulated domestically with lots of heads and the bones etc removed (divide of four), said that "it seems that it has become about 1500 yen cheaper compared to about 3000 yen per kilo last year". Surplus stock caused by decrease in consumption was a factor that lowered the price. The stock of the frozen blue-fin tuna, according to an estimate (by major fishery company) was that "There might be 20,000 tons or more, that is equivalent to a year's consumption", and the same company said the majority of them were "the one that had been traded at a high local price before the Lehman shock of last autumn". The stock of last year was a burden because it could not be disposed of cheaply, and the careful attitude of big traders was also a major factor that had lowered this year's the local purchase price.

From the above, it seems that tuna trade in Japan is being affected by the "Lehman" incident happened last year.

2009年11月19日 星期四


"Kodansha's Furigana English-Japanese Dictionary"是為懂得英語的人士而設計的日文字典. 它是我每天都用到的工具書之一. 最主要是由英語單字找到同義的日文. 它同時也列出這個字的漢字寫法和讀音. 如果你懂得英文, 就可以很方便地用它. 它只有一種檢字方法, 就是用英文A - Z排列. 這字典是於1996年出版, 在2001出新版, 有717頁, 共收集了14,000 個資料, 囊括了多數日本人常用的字.

2009年11月18日 星期三


"現代日中常用漢字對比詞典"是中國大陸出版的日文字典, 它是我每天都用到的工具書之一. 這書的用處是幫我找到日文漢字的讀音, 同時也由它找到變化出來的詞語. 它的好處是能夠由中文找出日文. 那就是說, 如果你懂得中文, 你就可以利用它. 它有三種檢字方法. 第一是從國語拼音表找到你需要的字. 如果你懂得國語拼音, 這是很方便. 第二個方法是去數你需要尋找的日本漢字的筆畫, 然後由一筆畫到二十二筆畫的字表中揀出你需要的字. 我是我常常用的方法. 第三是由音訓檢字表, 由日文五十音順表中去檢字, 當然你需要知到那個漢字的日本讀音, 才能用呢個方法. 這字典是於1996年出版, 有1522頁, 總共收集了1945 個在日文常常見到的漢字.

2009年11月16日 星期一


Recently Mainichi News reported the following:

 北海道職員がパソコンのソフト約4700本分を不正にコピーして使用していたことが14日分かった。北海道は米マイクロソフト社に約1億4000万円を支払うことで合意した。別のソフト会社とも協議しており、数億円の支払いを求められる可能性がある。 道によると、07年2月にマイクロソフト社から「ソフト管理が適正か確認したい」との指摘があり、庁内のパソコン約2万4000台を調査。その結果、マイクロソフト社製の「オフィス」など表計算やワープロなどのソフト4084本が不正コピーだった。道は約3200本分のライセンス料を支払い、残り約800本は消去する。 別のソフト会社のソフトは655本。工事の設計などの専門性の高い製品で、1本20万~60万円という。道情報政策課は「パソコン本体は備品として管理していたが、ソフトは管理していなかった。著作権に対する職員の認識が薄かった」と話し、改めて職員への啓発を行うとともに、ソフトを監視するシステムを作る。 自治体によるソフト不正コピーは全国で相次いでおり、石川県は6月、正式な購入額の1.5倍に相当する損害賠償金を支払うことでソフト会社と合意している.

It was understood on the 14th that government staff in Hokkaido had about 4700 sets of illegally copied software and used them in personal computers. Hokkaido agency had agreed on the payment of about 140 million yen to the Microsoft company of the U.S. It also had conferred with another software company, and there was a possibility that a payment up to several hundred million yen could be requested. According to the prefecture, the Microsoft Corporation in February 07 said "I want to confirm whether soft management is proper", and about 24,000 personal computers in the agency were investigated. As a result, 4084 sets of software such as spread sheets, and word processors such as "Office" made by Microsoft Corporation were found to be unauthorized copies. The prefecture paid the license fee of about 3200 sets of software, and the remainder of 800 were deleted. Separately, the software made by another software company was 655 sets. It was said that a copy of software made specially for construction designing could cost 200,000 yen to 600,000 yen. The prefecture's Information and Planning Division said that 「Software was not managed, although personal computers were managed as standard items. The staff's knowledge on copyright was weak」. Repeatedly it had enlightened its staff to change, and a system that could observe software usage was now in place. In the whole country, unauthorized software copying by the municipality came to light one after another, and Ishikawa prefecture in June had agreed on a damage payment to a software company that amounted to 1.5 times the formal purchasing cost.

From the above, it seems that Microsoft Corporation was taking serious action against the use of illegally copied software.

2009年11月14日 星期六

M.C. Perry and Japan (XX)

At this moment Perry was successful in obtaining the concessions he needed from the Japanese and he had overcome the most difficult part of his mission. Trust and friendship began to develop. Later, the Japanese invited Perry to the treaty house to receive some gifts which included specimens rich brocades and silks, some porcelain cups, some Japanese coins, three matchlocks, two swords and 200 sacks of rice.1 Perry was also invited to see the wrestling game. On March 25, Yenosuke and his assistant interpreter Kenzeiro visited the Powhatan to informally talk about the future treaty. Yenosuke said that Hakodate might be ready for the American ships by March 1855. As for Shimoda, Perry said he considered that the port was opened as soon as he received a favourable report of it from his men who were making a survey on it. Near the end of the meeting, the establishment of an American consular agent in Japan was discussed. It was finally decided that he should reside at Shimoda.2 On March 27, Perry entertained the Japanese commissioners on board. It was a big feast. The five Japanese commissioners were entertained at the cabin of Perry with a very handsome banquet while their subordinate officials, amounting to about 60 men were entertained at the quarter-deck with all kinds of good food. Also accompanying Perry in the cabin included the four captains of Perry's, Mr. Williams, and Japanese interpreter Yenosuke. During the banquet, it was the Japanese who took the lead in proposing healths and toasts. "They kept shouting at the top of their voices, and were heard far above the music of the bands that enlivened the entertainment by a succession of brisk and cheerful tunes."3 (to be continued)

1. Perry, Matthew Calbraith ed. by Sidney Wallach. Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan. NY: Coward-McCann, 1952, page 187.
2. Ibid., page 196.
3. Ibid., page 199.

2009年11月12日 星期四


Recently the Excite News reported the following:

覚せい剤取締法違反の罪で懲役1年6月、執行猶予3年の判決を受けた元女優、酒井法子(38)が新しいパソコンを購入し、来週月曜日の16日から授業を受けることが12日、分かった。酒 井は介護など福祉全般を学ぶため、創造学園大学(群馬・高崎市)の一般人入試(小論文、面接)を受け、ソーシャルワーク学部に合格、9日の判決公判前に入学手続きを済ませており、勉強の環境が整い次第、随時授業をスタートさせることができる。高崎市の本部キャンパスには通わず、パソコンや携帯を使った遠隔地教育システム「E-LEARNING」で学び、単位取得を目指す酒井にとって、パソコンは“ノートや鉛筆”と同じ。酒井と親しい関係者はこの日サンケイスポーツの取材に「今日の午後、電話で話しました。『昨日(11日)新しいパソコンが届いて、一生懸命使い方に慣れているところです』と言っていました」と明かした。この関係者は「落ち着いているし、前向きに頑張っているようだから、安心しました」とも語り、酒井の門出を祈っていた。

It was learned on the 12th that former actress Noriko Sakai (38) who had received the 18-month penal servitude sentence, suspended for three years in connecting with the crime that violated the Stimulants Control Law, had bought a new personal computer and would start attending classes starting Monday 16th next week. Sakai, for the purpose of studying general welfare matters like nursing etc, took the entrance exam for ordinary people (short essay and interview) conducted by the Creation Educational Institution University (Gunma and Takasaki City), had passed the social work faculty requirements and completed registration before the trial on the 9th, and could start classes at any time as soon as the environment for study was in order. There was no need to frequent the headquarters campus in Takasaki City because it was a learning system in the form of distant education called "E-LEARNING" which used the personal computer, and for Sakai who aimed at acquiring studying credits, the personal computer was equivalent to "Notebook and pencil". It was understood that, according to this day's Sankei Sports, Sakai had discussion with people closely related to her that 「This afternoon there was telephone conversation. It was said, 'A new personal computer had arrived yesterday (the 11th), and (she) was trying hard to accustom to its usage'. 」 These people also said, "The matter is settling down, and it is a relief because it seems that (she) is working hard at a positive direction", and they prayed for Sakai's departure for classes.

It is comforting to see that people who had made a mistake was given a chance to start afresh. All the best, Noriko Sakai.

2009年11月11日 星期三


Recently the Jiji News reported the following:

新型インフルエンザ用ワクチンをめぐり、長妻昭厚生労働相は11日、高校生以下の年齢層を除き、1回接種を正式決定したと発表した。これまでは2回を原則としていたが、1回と2回とで得られる免疫がほとんど変わらないとの臨床試験結果から、専門家らが1回で十分とする見解をまとめたため。 今回の決定により、接種スケジュールが前倒しされる。また、従来は接種対象外だった健康な成人がワクチンを打てる可能性も高まったが、実際の接種時期は遅く、新型インフルエンザ流行のピークには間に合わないとみられている。厚生労働省によると、持病のある人、妊婦、高齢者、1歳未満の乳児の保護者はすべて1回接種。13歳未満の子どもは基礎的な免疫を持っていない可能性があるため2回とし、持病のある人のうち免疫状態が悪化している人は医師の判断で2回も可能とした。また、中学、高校生は当面2回を前提とし、12月中に臨床試験結果がまとまるのを待って1回で済むかどうか判断する。 

The Health Minister announced on the 11th that they had been formally decided on one-dose vaccination regarding the vaccination for the new influenza, except for the age group below the high school student. Up to this moment, the principle was to go for two-dose vaccination. Based on the result obtained from the clinical trial on immunity, one-dose or two-dose had hardly showed any difference, as such specialists came to the conclusion that one-dose vaccination would be enough. The vaccination schedule could be moved up by this decision. But, as there was the possibility of vaccinating the healthy adults who all along were outside the vaccination schedule, on top of the delay in actual vaccination, they might be lacking behind in coping with the arrival of the peak of the new influenza. According to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, people who had chronic disease, pregnant women, senior citizens, and guardians of baby below one-year-old would be vaccinated once. Children of less than 13-year-old would receive twice because there was a possibility that they were without the basic immunity, also, people who had chronic disease and their immune status had deteriorated might receive twice depending on the doctor's judgment. Moreover, the junior high school and the high school student would now go ahead with two-doze vaccination, but by the end of December upon the release of the clinical trial result, a decision would be made on whether one-dose vaccination would suffice.

From the above we can see that Japan is fine-tuning its vaccination strategy in response to the new type influenza.

2009年11月10日 星期二

M.C. Perry and Japan (XIX)

In some written documents, Perry was told by the Japanese that the American could begin trade in Nagasaki next year. And it would take Japan five years to open other port. The next day, March 17th Perry met with the Japanese officials in the treaty house. During the discussion, Perry insisted that one or more ports must be substituted for Nagasaki because it was inconvenient for the American to go there. Perry also objected to Japan's suggestion that even in the opened port, the American could not be allowed to walk about freely. Perry informed the Japanese commissioners that he wanted to have five ports opened to the American, at the present moment, he would be glad to have three: one on the island of Honshu, either Uraga or Kagoshima, one in Hokkaido, probably Matsumai, the third one was Napha in Lew Chew. After some negotiation Shimoda was proposed as a possibility, replacing Nagasaki and Uraga. At this stage, the commissioners said that they needed one year to decide on the opening of a port because they had to consult the prince from that location. In response Perry suggested that he would go there to negotiate direct. Finally, before ending the discussion, the commissioners agreed to give Perry an answer on March 23th. It was also agreed that Perry could send his men to check whether Shimoda was acceptable to the American. Accordingly, Perry on 20th March, sent two vessels to inspect the harbor in Shimoda. On 23th March the Japanese in writing informed the American that the port of Hakodate, which was near Matsumai was to be opened to the American. This decision was welcome by Perry.1 (to be continued)

1. Perry, Matthew Calbraith ed. by Sidney Wallach. Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan. NY: Coward-McCann, 1952, page 185.

2009年11月5日 星期四


Recently FNN reported the following:


According to the information obtained by FNN about Japan Airlines' management rebuilding which was connected to some bridge financing that must be dealt with in November, it was understood that in the morning of the 6th that a government task force had requested an ordinary financing of about 100 billion yen from the syndicate of banks in a shape that the no state guarantee would be attached. It was understood that in the morning of 6th, Senior Vice Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport together with Senior Vice Minister of Finance of the government, as members of the Japan Airlines rebuilding task force conferred with Development Bank of Japan etc bank syndicates about Japan Airline's request for a bridge finance of around 100 billion yen which normally without state guarantee attached. The banks insisted that they reserved their attitude because "Financing without the state guarantee is difficult". The task force at this stage considered it difficult to make judgement on the state guarantee and the possibility that it might become a public financial burden, and had requested to understand the announcement of the government on the substance of the special legislation of the pension reduction. On the other hand, Japan Airlines decided on a policy to seek the return of the winter bonus given to about 230 managers who were beyond the directorate level, and was also considering putting on hold the bonus to the 17,000 employees.

From the above, it is obvious that the airline industry in Japan is still having a hard time.

2009年11月2日 星期一


Recently Mainichi News reported the following:

日本自動車販売協会連合会などが2日発表した10月の国内総新車販売台数は前年同月比4.4%増の39万6048台と、2カ月連続で前年実績を上回った。減税と買い替え補助による国のエコカー支援策が、ハイブリッド車(HV)などの販売増につながった。登録車の販売を社名・ブランド別で見ると、HV「インサイト」などが堅調なホンダは29.9%増の4万3427台と7カ月連続のプラス。HV「プリウス」などが人気のトヨタ自動車は13.8%増の13万3877台と3カ月連続増となった。減税対象の低燃費車が好調な日産自動車も15.3%増の3万6572台と、大手3社がそろって2ケタ増を記録した。 だが、昨年10月は米リーマン・ブラザーズ破綻(はたん)後の世界的な金融危機の影響で新車販売が大きく落ち込んだ経緯がある。そのため、業界関係者は「販売台数の水準は依然低く、本格回復とは言えない」(大手メーカー幹部)と慎重だ。

The Japan Automobile Dealers Association etc. had announced on the second of this month that the total number of new cars sold domestically in October was 396,048, an increase of 4.4% compared to same month last year, and was a two-month continuous increase compared to the record a year ago. The country's eco-friendly car support plan which used tax reduction and purchase substitution assistance as the means was attributed to sales increase in cars including gas-and-electric-powered cars (HV). When the car sales registration was analysed according to the name of the company and the brand, Honda HV "Incite" etc. had car sales of 43,427, an increase of 29.9% which was a steady plus for seven continuous months. HV "Prius" etc. popular Toyota Motor had a continuous increase amounting to 133,877, an increase of 13.8% and was a three- month continuous increase. Nissan Motor Co. which was good at producing fuel efficient cars thus attracted tax reduction also had sales increase of 15.3% standing at 36,572 cars, and the 3 major companies recorded a two digit increase. However, there was a fact to consider: the U.S. Lehman Brothers Holdings failure last October that caused the following worldwide finance crisis had affected new cars sales and caused it to drop greatly. Therefore, the person who was related to the industry was prudent, (the executive of major manufacturer) saying that "The level on numbers of sales is still low, and cannot be called a real recovery".

Is the recovery of domestic car sales really an indication of economic recovery for Japan?